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The development of the first standardized "scratch 'n sniff" olfactory test is described. Over 1600 subjects participated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, 50 microencapsulated odorants were rated as to their intensity, pleasantness, irritation, coolness, and familiarity, and two procedures for releasing them were compared. In Experiment 2, the results(More)
Smell identification ability was measured in 1955 persons ranging in age from 5 to 99 years. On the average, women outperformed men at all ages, and nonsmokers outperformed smokers. Peak performance occurred in the third through fifth decades and declined markedly after the seventh. More than half of those 65 to 80 years old evidenced major olfactory(More)
The development of the 12-item Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), based upon items from the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), is described. In developing this test, the authors initially selected UPSIT items that are familiar to most persons from North American, European, South American, and Asian cultures. The(More)
Ten tests of olfactory function (including tests of odor identification, detection, discrimination, memory, and suprathreshold odor intensity and pleasantness perception) were administered on two test occasions to 57 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 83 years. The stability of the average test scores was determined across the two test sessions for 14(More)
Despite the fact that clinical otolaryngologists are often presented with complaints of olfactory dysfunction, they have limited means to diagnose these problems. A major reason has been the lack of a clinically-useful and reliable quantitative test of olfactory function. Recent work at our Clinical Research Center has resulted in the development of such a(More)
The internal consistency reliability (ICR) of the 40-item University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) and its 10-, 20-, and 30-item fractions was explored, as well as the relationships between the fractions and the entire 40-item test. Pearson correlation coefficients (rs) were computed among all independent combinations and permutations of(More)
BACKGROUND The ability to smell is commonly altered by head trauma (HT). However, the nature, prevalence, prognosis, and etiology of such alterations are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES To quantitatively determine the degree of olfactory function in patients with HT-related chemosensory complaints and to examine the influences of age, sex, HT severity, time(More)
BACKGROUND Although adverse neuropsychological and neurological health effects are well known among workers with high manganese (Mn) exposures in mining, ore-processing and ferroalloy production, the risks among welders with lower exposures are less well understood. METHODS Confined space welding in construction of a new span of the San Francisco-Oakland(More)
Smell and taste disorders are common in the general population, yet little is known about their nature or cause. This article describes a study of 750 patients with complaints of abnormal smell or taste perception from the University of Pennsylvania Smell and Taste Center, Philadelphia. Major findings suggest that: chemosensory dysfunction influences(More)