Richard L. Barnes

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BACKGROUND Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. OBJECTIVES Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of(More)
Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reductions in blood volume and associated oxygen-carrying capacity on the incidence of plateau at $$\dot{V}{\text{O}}$$ V ˙ O 2max. Fifteen well-trained athletes (age 23.3 ± 4.5; mass 77.4 ± 13.1 kg, height 180.1 ± 6.0 cm) completed three incremental cycle tests to volitional exhaustion, of which the(More)
982), granting the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority regulating tobacco products. The idea of FDA regulation of tobacco has broad [1], but not unanimous, support among medical and public health professionals. This law has many strengths (Table 1): it grants the FDA general authority over tobacco products, including the ability to reduce (but(More)
The trillions of cigarette butts generated each year throughout the world pose a significant challenge for disposal regulations, primarily because there are millions of points of disposal, along with the necessity to segregate, collect and dispose of the butts in a safe manner, and cigarette butts are toxic, hazardous waste. There are some hazardous waste(More)
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