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Essential blepharospasm is an idiopathic, progressively debilitating disease leading to blindness. Years of forceful spasms result in brow ptosis, dermatochalasis, and, frequently, levator aponeurosis and lateral canthal tendon defects. Following standard neurectomy procedures, the facies droop, brow ptosis and dermatochalasis worsen, and ptosis and canthal(More)
Twenty-eight patients with pseudotumor cerebri underwent 40 optic nerve sheath fenestrations for relief of visual loss or to preserve vision. Twenty women and eight men underwent 16 unilateral fenestrations and 12 bilateral operations. Papilledema disappeared or was strikingly reduced in 24 of 28 patients. The other four patients had gliotic discs (two(More)
Essential blepharospasm is an idiopathic disorder of progressive involuntary spasms of the orbicularis oculi and upper facial (corrugator, procerus) muscles. Blepharospasm literally means spasm of the eyelids; however, most patients with blepharospasm also have or will develop squeezing in the lower face and neck muscles (Meige's syndrome, orofacial(More)
The paralytic properties of botulinum A toxin have led to its use in humans in the treatment of strabismus and facial dystonias such as essential blepharospasm. Examination of orbicularis muscle from 10 patients with essential blepharospasm who received 2-18 injections of botulinum toxin 6 weeks to 3 years prior to surgery revealed characteristic nodal,(More)
Apraxia of lid opening is a nonparalytic motor abnormality characterized by difficulty in initiating the act of lid elevation. It has been reported with extrapyramidal disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Shy-Drager syndrome. We found seven cases (7%) of functionally disabling apraxia of lid(More)
To assess longstanding alterations in human muscle innervation induced by botulinum toxin, we studied motor axons in the orbicularis oculi of nine patients previously injected with botulinum toxin for treatment of benign essential blepharospasm (BEB). Compared with untreated BEB and normal orbicularis oculi, muscle exposed to botulinum toxin developed(More)
A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the levator aponeurosis is required for the aponeurotic approach to ptosis. Yet, many misconceptions regarding the insertional attachments of this important structure are found in the literature. The levator aponeurosis inserts via a fan of fibers. The first insertional attachment curves anteriorly around the orbital(More)