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In 1997, an International Expert Committee was convened to reexamine the classification and diagnostic criteria of diabetes, which were based on the 1979 publication of the National Diabetes Data Group1 and subsequent WHO study group.2 As a result of its deliberations, the Committee recommended several changes to the diagnostic criteria for diabetes and for(More)
The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to a clustering of specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors whose underlying pathophysiology is thought to be related to insulin resistance. Since the term is widely used in research and clinical practice, we undertook an extensive review of the literature in relation to the syndrome's definition, underlying(More)
The intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila subverts vesicle traffic in eukaryotic host cells to create a vacuole that supports replication. The dot/icm genes encode a protein secretion apparatus that L. pneumophila require for biogenesis of this vacuole. Here we show that L. pneumophila produce a protein called RalF that functions as an exchange(More)
The ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) are six proteins within the larger Arf family and Ras superfamily that regulate membrane traffic. Arfs all share numerous biochemical activities and have very similar specific activities. The use of dominant mutants and brefeldin A has been important to the discovery of the cellular functions of Arfs but lack specificity(More)
The mission of the American Diabetes Association is “to prevent and cure diabetes and to improve the lives of all people affected by diabetes.” Increasingly, scientific and medical articles (1) and commentaries (2) about diabetes interventions use the terms “remission” and “cure” as possible outcomes. Several approved or experimental treatments for type 1(More)
The Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm system is a type IV secretion apparatus that transfers bacterial proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The RalF protein is a substrate engaged and translocated into host cells by the Dot/Icm system. In this study, the mechanism of Dot/Icm-mediated translocation of RalF has been investigated. It was determined that RalF(More)
The term ‘metabolic syndrome’ refers to a clustering of specific cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors whose underlying pathophysiology is thought to be related to insulin resistance. Since the term is widely used in research and clinical practice, we undertook an extensive review of the literature in relation to the syndrome’s definition, underlying(More)
The two multifunctional cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP79A1 and CYP71E1, involved in the biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench have been characterized with respect to substrate specificity and cofactor requirements using reconstituted, recombinant enzymes and sorghum microsomes. CYP79A1 has a very high substrate(More)
The National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III report (ATP III)1 identified the metabolic syndrome as a multiplex risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is deserving of more clinical attention. Subsequently, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), in collaboration with the American Heart Association (AHA),(More)
Arl13b, a ciliary protein within the ADP-ribosylation factor family and Ras superfamily of GTPases, is required for ciliary structure but has poorly defined ciliary functions. In this paper, we further characterize the role of Arl13b in cilia by examining mutant cilia in vitro and determining the localization and dynamics of Arl13b within the cilium.(More)