Richard K Shields

Learn More
Maintaining the physiologic integrity of paralyzed limbs may be critical for those with spinal cord injury (SCI) to be viable candidates for a future cure. No long-term intervention has been tested to attempt to prevent the severe musculoskeletal deterioration that occurs after SCI. The purposes of this study were to determine whether a long-term(More)
We measured low-frequency depression of soleus H-reflexes in individuals with acute (n=5) and chronic (n=7) spinal-cord injury and in able-bodied controls (n=7). In one acute subject, we monitored longitudinal changes in low-frequency depression of H-reflexes over 44 weeks and examined the relationship between H-reflex depression and soleus-muscle fatigue(More)
1. The goal of this study was to characterize the fatigability, contractile relaxation properties, electrophysiological responses, and histochemical properties of the human paralyzed soleus muscle to determine its relative plasticity. 2. Acute (< 6 wk, n = 3) and chronic (> 1 yr, n = 10) paralyzed individuals had the tibial nerve activated with a 20-Hz(More)
We analyzed the twitch and summated torque (tetanus) during repetitive activation and recovery of the human soleus muscle in individuals with spinal cord injury. Thirteen individuals with complete paralysis (9 chronic, 4 acute) had the tibial nerve activated every 1,500 ms with a 20-Hz train (7 stimuli) for 300 ms and a single pulse at 1,100 ms. The(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is a condition-specific health status measure for persons with vestibular disease, and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) is a generic health status assessment. The purposes of this study were (1) to describe the relationship between the DHI and the SF-36, (2) to(More)
PURPOSE Strenuous exercise in animal studies has been shown to cause acute oxidative stress due to the generation of oxygen-centered free radicals reflected in lower levels of glutathione (GSH), higher levels of glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and a drop in GSH:GSSG ratios, the maintenance of which is crucial for a variety of cell functions. Human studies on(More)
Mechanical loads induced through muscle contraction, vibration, or compressive forces are thought to modulate tissue plasticity. With the emergence of regenerative medicine, there is a need to understand the optimal mechanical environment (vibration, load, or muscle force) that promotes cellular health. To our knowledge no mechanical system has been(More)
Recent evidence indicates that muscle ischemia and activation of the muscle chemoreflex are the principal stimuli to sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during isometric exercise. We postulated that physical training would decrease muscle chemoreflex stimulation during isometric exercise and thereby attenuate the SNA response to exercise. We investigated the(More)
Surveillance of femur metaphysis bone mineral density (BMD) decline after spinal cord injury (SCI) may be subject to slice placement error of 2.5%. Adaptations to anti-osteoporosis measures should exceed this potential source of error. Image analysis parameters likewise affect BMD output and should be selected strategically in longitudinal studies.(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term electrical stimulation training of the paralyzed soleus could change this muscle's physiological properties (torque, fatigue index, potentiation index, torque-time integral) and increase tibia bone mineral density. METHODS Four men with chronic (>2 years) complete spinal cord injury(More)