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Insulin is secreted from the islets of Langerhans in coordinated pulses. These pulses are thought to lead to plasma insulin oscillations, which are putatively more effective in lowering blood glucose than continuous levels of insulin. Gap-junction coupling of β-cells by connexin-36 coordinates intracellular free calcium oscillations and pulsatile insulin(More)
The pancreatic islet is a highly coupled, multicellular system that exhibits complex spatiotemporal electrical activity in response to elevated glucose levels. The emergent properties of islets, which differ from those arising in isolated islet cells, are believed to arise in part by gap junctional coupling, but the mechanisms through which this coupling(More)
The Slc30a8 gene encodes the islet-specific zinc transporter ZnT-8, which provides zinc for insulin-hexamer formation. Polymorphic variants in amino acid residue 325 of human ZnT-8 are associated with altered susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes and ZnT-8 autoantibody epitope specificity changes in Type 1 diabetes. To assess the physiological importance of(More)
Coordinated pulses of electrical activity and insulin secretion are a hallmark of the islet of Langerhans. These coordinated behaviors are lost when β cells are dissociated, which also leads to increased insulin secretion at low glucose levels. Islets without gap junctions exhibit asynchronous electrical activity similar to dispersed cells, but their(More)
The large Maf transcription factors, MafA and MafB, are expressed with distinct spatial-temporal patterns in rodent islet cells. Analysis of Mafa(-/-) and pancreas-specific Mafa(∆panc) deletion mutant mice demonstrated a primary role for MafA in adult β-cell activity, different from the embryonic importance of MafB. Our interests here were to precisely(More)
The pancreatic islets of Langerhans are multicellular micro-organs integral to maintaining glucose homeostasis through secretion of the hormone insulin. β-cells within the islet exist as a highly coupled electrical network which coordinates electrical activity and insulin release at high glucose, but leads to global suppression at basal glucose. Despite its(More)
Mutations to the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (KATP channel) that reduce the sensitivity of ATP inhibition cause neonatal diabetes mellitus via suppression of β-cell glucose-stimulated free calcium activity ([Ca(2+)]i) and insulin secretion. Connexin-36 (Cx36) gap junctions also regulate islet electrical activity; upon knockout of Cx36, β-cells show [Ca(2+)]i(More)
OBJECTIVE Pertussis toxin uncoupling-based studies have shown that Gαi and Gαo can inhibit insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Yet it is unclear whether Gαi and Gαo operate through identical mechanisms and how these G-protein-mediated signals inhibit insulin secretion in vivo. Our objective is to examine whether/how Gαo regulates islet development and(More)
Excess superoxide has been implicated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). We previously found lung overexpression of the antioxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) attenuates PH and pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling. Although comprising a small fraction of total SOD activity in most tissues, EC-SOD is abundant in arteries. We hypothesize that the(More)
Most materials and methods utilized are described in the manuscript. In order to test the effect of Gαo fragment to insulin secretion, an expression vector that codes for the 1-156 amino acid of the hamster Gαo was cloned into expression vector pCDNA3. The plasmid was co-transfected into Ins1 cells with pCIG vector, which expresses EGFP. Transfected cells(More)