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Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encodes a thymidine kinase (EC 2.7.2.21) which phosphorylates several antiviral nucleoside analogs, including acyclovir (ACV). A mutation in the VZV thymidine kinase coding sequence, resulting in an arginine-to-glutamine substitution at amino acid residue 130 (R130Q), is associated with clinical resistance to ACV. We have(More)
Mutations in the YMDD motif of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA polymerase result in reduced susceptibility of HBV to inhibition by lamivudine, at a cost in replication fitness. The mechanisms underlying the effects of YMDD mutations on replication fitness were investigated using both a cell-based viral replication system and an in vitro enzyme assay to(More)
The relative translation efficiencies of reovirus messenger RNAs were measured by infecting BHK cells with serotype 1, 2, or 3 virus and measuring the rate of formation of each viral protein species and the amount of each viral single-stranded (ss) RNA species present in the infected cells throughout the multiplication cycle. The translation efficiency of(More)
In the context of the CERN 'Radiation To Electronics (R2E)' project, the vulnerability of a variety of components for particle accelerators electronics to single event effects, total ionizing dose and displacement damage has been analysed. The tested parts include analog, linear, digital, and hybrid devices and a summary of radiation test results is(More)
The 10 species of reovirus messenger RNA are translated in vivo with efficiencies/frequencies that differ by as much as 100-fold. The s1 mRNA, which is translated 10 times less efficiently than the s4 mRNA but 10 times more efficiently than the/1 and m1 mRNAs, has a unique BamH1 cleavage site located immediately downstream of its initiation codon. Because(More)
The absorption of subpicosecond uv laser pulses has been measured at intensities above 10(17) W/cm(2). High levels of absorption were observed, up to 55% for s polarization and 65% for p polarization. The behavior with angle of incidence and polarization can be interpreted as due to a combination of resonance and collisional absorption, taking place in a(More)
Soil texture is known to have an influence on the physical and biological processes that produce NO emissions in agricultural fields, yet comparisons across soil textural types are limited by considerations of time and practicality. We used the DayCent biogeochemical model to assess the effects of soil texture on NO emissions from agriculturally productive(More)