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BACKGROUND Acute exacerbations adversely affect patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrolide antibiotics benefit patients with a variety of inflammatory airway diseases. METHODS We performed a randomized trial to determine whether azithromycin decreased the frequency of exacerbations in participants with COPD who had an increased(More)
RATIONALE Ventilation in the prone position for about 7 h/d in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute lung injury, or acute respiratory failure does not decrease mortality. Whether it is beneficial to administer prone ventilation early, and for longer periods of time, is unknown. METHODS We enrolled 136 patients within 48 h of(More)
Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of antiinflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed over the(More)
Neutrophils are believed to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This concept is largely based on the observation that neutrophil depletion protects against altered pulmonary vascular permeability in several models of acute lung injury produced in laboratory animals. Four patients who developed ARDS(More)
Oxygenation improves in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome and in animals with oleic acid-induced lung injury when they are turned from the supine to the prone position. Dependent and nondependent pleural pressures (Ppl) were measured in six pigs ventilated in the supine and prone positions before and after volume infusion (VI). Before VI the(More)
Immunized mice after inhalation of specific antigen have the following characteristic features of human asthma: airway eosinophilia, mucus and Th2 cytokine release, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. A model of late-phase allergic pulmonary inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice was used to address the role of the alpha4 integrin (CD49d) in(More)
This document provides clinical recommendations for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations.Comprehensive evidence syntheses, including meta-analyses, were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment,(More)
PURPOSE To examine resident workflow as part of an institutional approach to redesigning the processes of health care delivery. METHOD In 2003 the authors observed the workflows for 24 hours of seven residents who were at various levels of training (two each from the internal medicine, pediatrics, and obstetrics and gynecology programs, and one from(More)