Richard John Ward

Learn More
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2; GPR43) is a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The SCFA propionate has close to optimal ligand efficiency for FFA2 and can hence be considered as highly potent given its size. Propionate, however, does not(More)
The CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) on neutrophils, which recognizes chemokines produced at the site of infection, plays an important role in antimicrobial host defenses such as neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen secreting a number of proteolytic enzymes, but their influence on the host immune system(More)
Agonist-induced internalization was observed for both inducible and constitutively expressed forms of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. These were also internalized by the peptide orexin A, which has no direct affinity for the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor, but only when the orexin OX(1) receptor was co-expressed along with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. This(More)
The orexin peptides (orexin A, orexin B) and their receptors (orexin receptor type 1, orexin receptor type 2) are involved in multiple physiological processes such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness state, energy homeostasis and reward seeking. A result of this has been the development of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists as novel therapies for(More)
FFA2 is a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to short chain fatty acids and has generated interest as a therapeutic target for metabolic and inflammatory conditions. However, definition of its functions has been slowed by a dearth of selective ligands that can distinguish it from the closely related FFA3. At present, the only selective ligands(More)
The stable interaction of a G-protein coupled receptor and a particular partner G-protein was made possible by creating tandems between the alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor (alpha(2A)-R) and pertussis toxin-resistant mutants of different G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Both alpha(2A)-R-G alpha(o) and alpha(2A)-R-G alpha(i) proved able to(More)
Agonists stimulated high-affinity GTPase activity in membranes of HEK293 cells following coexpression of the alpha 2A-adrenoceptor and a pertussis toxin-resistant mutant of Go1 alpha. Enzyme kinetic analysis of Vmax and Km failed to detect regulation of the effect of agonist by a GTPase activating protein. This did occur, however, when cells were also(More)
There is a growing demand for enzymes with improved catalytic performance or tolerance to process-specific parameters, and biotechnology plays a crucial role in the development of biocatalysts for use in industry, agriculture, medicine and energy generation. Metagenomics takes advantage of the wealth of genetic and biochemical diversity present in the(More)
A wide range of intracellular proteins have been demonstrated to interact with individual G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and, in certain cases, to modulate their function or trafficking. However, in only a few cases have the GPCR selectivity of such interactions been investigated. Interactions between the intracellular C-terminal tails of 44 GPCRs and(More)
The questions of whether G protein-coupled receptors exist as monomers, dimers, and/or oligomers and if these species interconvert in a ligand-dependent manner are among the most contentious current issues in biology. When employing spatial intensity distribution analysis to laser scanning confocal microscope images of cells stably expressing either a(More)