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Analysis of genomic data requires an efficient way to calculate likelihoods across very large numbers of loci. We describe a general method for finding the distribution of genealogies: we allow migration between demes, splitting of demes [as in the isolation-with-migration (IM) model], and recombination between linked loci. These processes are described by(More)
The present study examines the hypothesis that exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescent development predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior by influencing the anterior hypothalamic-arginine vasopressin (AH-AVP) neural system. To test this, adolescent male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were treated with high(More)
Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on(More)
Cocaine abuse during adolescence represents a significant health risk because of the potential for both acute and long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. This study examined the effects of chronic adolescent cocaine exposure on aggression in an animal model. It was hypothesized that chronic cocaine(More)
Why are most genes dispensable? The impact of gene deletions may depend on the environment (plasticity), the presence of compensatory mechanisms (mutational robustness), or both. Here, we analyze the interaction between these two forces by exploring the condition-dependence of synthetic genetic interactions that define redundant functions and alternative(More)
A series of 3,6-disubstituted acridine derivatives have been rationally designed as telomerase inhibitors. They have been designed on the basis that inhibition of telomerase occurs by stabilising G-quadruplex structures formed by the folding of telomeric DNA. The most potent inhibitors have IC50 values against telomerase of between 1.3 and 8 microM,(More)
The prevalence and patterns of use of psychiatric and anticonvulsant medications were studied in 83 seriously emotionally disturbed children and adolescents at the time of their admission to a residential treatment facility. Youths (aged 5-19, mean = 13.6 years), consecutively admitted over 17 months, were assessed for the prevalence and patterns of use of(More)
Developmental studies of oncogene expression implicate the Fos and Jun family of transcription factors in the regulation of bone growth and differentiation. Promoters of many developmentally regulated genes, including osteocalcin, a marker of osteoblast differentiation, contain AP-1 sites that bind Fos/Jun dimers. Here, we demonstrate that the selective(More)
Cocaine abuse during adolescence represents a significant health risk due to the potential for both acute and long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. This study examined the effect of adolescent cocaine treatment on flank marking (i.e., a stereotypic motor behavior that is part of the response pattern(More)
OBJECTIVE Depression has been associated with increases in circulating cytokines in younger adults, and there is evidence for prefrontal inflammation in late-life depression. The authors tested the hypothesis that levels of cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) would be higher in subjects with late-life major depression. METHOD Serum levels of IL-1beta(More)