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The gene designated gamma 134.5 maps in the inverted repeats flanking the long unique sequence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) DNA, and therefore it is present in two copies per genome. This gene is not essential for viral growth in cell culture. Four recombinant viruses were genetically engineered to test the function of this gene. These were (i) a virus(More)
Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with encephalitis were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for patients with encephalitis. The guideline includes data on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of many(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of these practice guidelines is to provide clinicians with recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial meningitis. Patients with bacterial meningitis are usually treated by primary care and emergency medicine physicians at the time of initial presentation, often in consultation with infectious diseases specialists,(More)
Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of viral encephalitides. The development of PCR has greatly increased our ability to diagnose viral infections of the central nervous system, particularly for herpes and enteroviral infections. Advancing knowledge has led to the recognition that some(More)
Herpes-simplex-virus (HSV) DNA in cerebrospinal fluid was amplified by use of the polymerase chain reaction and identified by hybridisation to a specific oligonucleotide probe. Specimens of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 4 of 4 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis were positive for HSV DNA, whereas CSF specimens from 6 patients with other(More)
BACKGROUND West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused ongoing seasonal epidemics in the United States since 1999. It is estimated that ≤1% of WNV-infected patients will develop neuroinvasive disease (West Nile encephalitis and/or myelitis) that can result in debilitating morbidities and long-term sequelae. It is essential to(More)
Long-term survivors of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common form of primary intracranial malignancy in adults, are extremely rare. Experimental animal models that more closely resemble human disease are essential for the identification of effective novel therapies. We report here an extensive analysis of the 4C8 glioma model to assess its suitability(More)
Survival from untreated herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis is well known to be accompanied by severe cognitive impairments. Recently, acyclovir has been proven to be the most effective available treatment for this disease, with the expectation that it would appreciably reduce morbidity. We performed detailed assessments of four consecutive patients who(More)
Discovered only 12 years ago, human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) has been associated with central nervous system (CNS) findings such as febrile seizures, encephalitis, meningitis, and possibly multiple sclerosis. These manifestations have been reported in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. The applications of such sophisticated laboratory(More)
BACKGROUND Despite widespread use, questions remain about the efficacy of oseltamivir in the treatment of influenza. We aimed to do an individual patient data meta-analysis for all clinical trials comparing oseltamivir with placebo for treatment of seasonal influenza in adults regarding symptom alleviation, complications, and safety. METHODS We included(More)