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Leukocytes respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at nanogram per milliliter concentrations with secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Excess secretion of TNF-alpha causes endotoxic shock, an often fatal complication of infection. LPS in the bloodstream rapidly binds to the serum protein, lipopolysaccharide binding protein(More)
Mammalian cells respond to endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by activation of protein kinase cascades that lead to new gene expression. A protein kinase, p38, that was tyrosine phosphorylated in response to LPS, was cloned. The p38 enzyme and the product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HOG1 gene, which are both members of the mitogen-activated protein(More)
Mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases include extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 subgroups. These MAP kinase isoforms are activated by dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine. Two human MAP kinase kinases (MKK3 and MKK4) were cloned that phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP(More)
For cells of the innate immune system to mount a host defence response to infection, they must recognize products of microbial pathogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. These cellular responses require intracellular signalling pathways, such as the four MAP kinase (MAPK) pathways. In mammalian cells the(More)
In mammals, several well-defined metabolic changes occur during infection, many of which are attributable to products of the reticuloendothelial system. Among these changes, a hypertriglyceridaemic state is frequently evident, resulting from defective triglyceride clearance, caused by systemic suppression of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We have(More)
  • R R Schumann, S R Leong, G W Flaggs, P W Gray, S D Wright, J C Mathison +2 others
  • 1990
The primary structure of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), a trace plasma protein that binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), was deduced by sequencing cloned complementary DNA. LBP shares sequence identity with another LPS binding protein found in granulocytes, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and with(More)
An acute phase of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) occurs transiently early in the immune response of Lewis rats to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) when Bordetella pertussis is used as adjuvant. It is characterized by a destructive cellular attack directed at the postsynaptic membranes of muscle. Acute EAMG can be passively(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces cell proliferation in a variety of cell types by binding to a prototype transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor. Ligation of this receptor by EGF activates Erk1 and Erk2, members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, through a Ras-dependent signal transduction pathway. Despite our detailed understanding(More)
The lipid A domain of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique, glucosamine-based phospholipid that makes up the outer monolayer of the outer membrane of most gram-negative bacteria. Because of its profound pharmacological effects on animal cells, especially those of the immune system, lipid A is also known as endotoxin. Despite decades of earlier work, the(More)