Richard J. Sanders

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BACKGROUND : Arterial and venous thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) were recognized in the late 1800s and neurogenic TOS in the early 1900s. Diagnosis and treatment of the 2 vascular forms of TOS are generally accepted in all medical circles. On the other hand, neurogenic TOS is more difficult to diagnose because there is no standard objective test to confirm(More)
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a nonspecific label. When employing it, one should define the type of TOS as arterial TOS, venous TOS, or neurogenic TOS. Each type has different symptoms and physical findings by which the three types can easily be identified. Neurogenic TOS (NTOS) is by far the most common, comprising well over 90% of all TOS patients.(More)
OBJECTIVE Cervical and anomalous first ribs are rare conditions, occurring in less than 1% of the population. This manuscript reviews our management of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) associated with these congenital anomalies. METHODS During the past 26 years, 65 operations were performed for abnormal ribs that produced symptoms of TOS. Of(More)
A review of the anatomic characteristics of the popliteal artery and its tibial branches was performed in 147 patients. The anterior tibial artery arose 6 to 8 cm below the knee joint in 91 percent of the limbs. The posterior tibioperoneal trunk was 2 to 5 cm in length in 87 percent of the patients. In 5 patients (3 percent), the posterior tibial artery(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2005 when we became aware of pectoralis minor syndrome (PMS), more than 75% of patients diagnosed with neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) also have neurogenic PMS (NPMS), and about 30% have only NPMS, without NTOS. METHODS Diagnosis was made based on history, physical examination, pectoralis minor (PM), and scalene muscle blocks(More)
Arterial damage, causing ischemia of the limb, occurs in less than 5 per cent of all instances of thoracic outlet syndrome. Arterial complications are usually associated with cervical ribs or rudimentary first ribs, but 12 per cent have occurred in patients with no osseous abnormality. The physiopathologic factors begin with compression of the subclavian(More)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is an important complication of ventilation in babies for which treatment with steroids has been advocated. We report the results of a phase I study of early i.v. dexamethasone to prevent the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in a high-risk population of ventilated premature babies, < 30 wk gestation, with(More)
Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is not a single disorder but a collection of abnormalities in the same anatomic area that elicit similar symptoms. The many causes of TOS are best classified into one of three groups: osseous, traumatic, and nontraumatic. Although patients with traumatic TOS constituted 86% of our last 600 patients with TOS who underwent(More)
This study investigates the proliferation characteristics of 81 primary basal cell carcinomas (BCC) using detection of the Ki-67 antigen by immunohistochemistry. The tumours were classified into distinct sub-types based on their histological growth pattern and differentiation status. The mean Ki-67 growth fraction was 0.293 and this was found to vary(More)