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Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2; GPR43) is a G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that is implicated in inflammatory and metabolic disorders. The SCFA propionate has close to optimal ligand efficiency for FFA2 and can hence be considered as highly potent given its size. Propionate, however, does not(More)
19 1. How much should an individual invest in reproduction as it grows older? Answering 20 this question involves determining whether individuals measure their age as the time 21 left for future reproduction or as the rate of deterioration in their state. Theory 22 suggests that in the former case individuals should increase their allocation of 23 resources(More)
Allosteric agonists are powerful tools for exploring the pharmacology of closely related G protein-coupled receptors that have nonselective endogenous ligands, such as the short chain fatty acids at free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 (FFA2/GPR43 and FFA3/GPR41, respectively). We explored the molecular mechanisms mediating the activity of(More)
The CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) on neutrophils, which recognizes chemokines produced at the site of infection, plays an important role in antimicrobial host defenses such as neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen secreting a number of proteolytic enzymes, but their influence on the host immune system(More)
Xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanases (Xegs, EC 3.2.1.151) exhibit high catalytic specificity for β-1,4 linkages of xyloglucan, a branched hemicellulosic polysaccharide abundant in dicot primary cell walls and present in many monocot species. In nature, GH12 Xegs are not associated with carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), and here, we have investigated(More)
Agonist-induced internalization was observed for both inducible and constitutively expressed forms of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. These were also internalized by the peptide orexin A, which has no direct affinity for the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor, but only when the orexin OX(1) receptor was co-expressed along with the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor. This(More)
(2010) Ligand regulation of the quaternary organization of cell surface M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors analyzed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging and homogenous time-resolved FRET.
FFA2 is a G protein-coupled receptor that responds to short chain fatty acids and has generated interest as a therapeutic target for metabolic and inflammatory conditions. However, definition of its functions has been slowed by a dearth of selective ligands that can distinguish it from the closely related FFA3. At present, the only selective ligands(More)
The orexin peptides (orexin A, orexin B) and their receptors (orexin receptor type 1, orexin receptor type 2) are involved in multiple physiological processes such as the regulation of sleep/wakefulness state, energy homeostasis and reward seeking. A result of this has been the development of small-molecule orexin receptor antagonists as novel therapies for(More)
The stable interaction of a G-protein coupled receptor and a particular partner G-protein was made possible by creating tandems between the alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor (alpha(2A)-R) and pertussis toxin-resistant mutants of different G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Both alpha(2A)-R-G alpha(o) and alpha(2A)-R-G alpha(i) proved able to(More)