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To study the potential effects of increased biofuel use, we evaluated six representative analyses of fuel ethanol. Studies that reported negative net energy incorrectly ignored coproducts and used some obsolete data. All studies indicated that current corn ethanol technologies are much less petroleum-intensive than gasoline but have greenhouse gas emissions(More)
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[COMMENTS ON TEXT BY TSU TO REVIEWER: This chapter has been allocated 60 template pages 1 (plus an additional 8 for the bioenergy annex). It currently counts 72 (plus an additional 18 bioenergy 2 pages), so it is 12 pages over target (plus an additional 10 bioenergy pages). Reviewers are kindly 3 asked to indicate where the chapter could be shortened.] 4
1 T here is a divergence of views on future bioenergy deployment that is based in disparate epistemic communities. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) project rising deployment of bio-mass and biofuels in climate change-mitigation scenarios 1,2. In contrast , life-cycle assessments (LCAs) and partial equilibrium models of land-use change emphasize high(More)
1. Current Legislative Context Among current legislative approaches to the issue of biofuels and sustainability, see: United States: Section 202 of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022. Of that total, 15 billion gallons may be 'conventional', or corn-based ethanol. The renewable fuel(More)
The following section was expanded to include a new analysis • Sensitivity Analysis (p. 18) In addition, the following corrections were made: • Farm Machinery as reported in (1) was added to Table S2 (p. 21) • Added note on Farm labor transport energy on page 7. • Corrected Figure 2 from the paper (Figure S3, here) as a result of updated lime values.
We find that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) could significantly reduce automotive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum consumption, while improving energy security and urban air quality. Widespread PHEV adoption will depend upon technological and economic advances in batteries because the initial fuel savings do not rapidly compensate(More)
Implementation of many policies intended to reduce fuels' contribution to global warming require an estimate of the global warming intensity (GWI) of various fuels. Determining the climate effect of a direct substitution of fuels is not the same as determining the official value of each fuel's GWI used to implement the policy. Choosing the second, which(More)