Richard J Payne

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1. The impulse-response was used to measure the dynamics of the photoresponse of 8 species of insects from 6 orders in both light- and dark-adapted states. 2. The impulse-responses of all cells were well fitted by the two-parameter log-normal curve. 3. In the dark-adapted state, the time-to-peak of the response varies from 38 ms in the drone-fly to 55 ms in(More)
Mucosal changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are characterized by ulcerative lesions accompanied by prominent cellular infiltrates in the bowel wall. Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that are able to promote leukocyte migration to areas of inflammation and are also able to initiate cell activation events. They have recently been implicated in the(More)
Delphinoids (Delphinidae, Odontoceti) produce tonal sounds and clicks by forcing pressurized air past phonic lips in the nasal complex. It has been proposed that homologous, hypertrophied nasal structures in the deep-diving sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) (Physeteridae, Odontoceti) are dedicated to the production of clicks. However, air volumes in(More)
Toothed whales (Odontoceti, Cetacea) navigate and locate prey by means of active echolocation. Studies on captive animals have accumulated a large body of knowledge concerning the production, reception and processing of sound in odontocete biosonars, but there is little information about the properties and use of biosonar clicks of free-ranging animals in(More)
We have determined or redetermined the calcium dissociation constants of seven BAPTA-type buffers with KD's in the range from 0.4 microM to about 20 mM in 300 mM KCl. These include four newly synthesized ones: 5-nitro BAPTA; 5,5'-dinitro BAPTA; 5-methyl-5'-nitro BAPTA; and 5-methyl-5'-formyl BAPTA. Moreover, we tabulate dissociation constants or KD's for(More)
Photoreceptors of dissociated Drosophila retinae were loaded with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicators, fluo-3 and Calcium Green-5N. In fluo-3-loaded, wild-type photoreceptors, a rapid increase in fluorescence (Ca2+ signal) accompanied the light-evoked inward current. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ greatly reduced the Ca2+ signal, indicating Ca2+ influx as its(More)
The interactions of chemokines with their G protein-coupled receptors play critical roles in the control of leukocyte trafficking in normal homeostasis and in inflammatory responses. Tyrosine sulfation is a common post-translational modification in the amino-terminal regions of chemokine receptors. However, tyrosine sulfation of chemokine receptors is(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To determine whether mucosal sensory dysfunction is present at multiple upper-airway sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). DESIGN Physiologic testing of consecutive patients with OSA and nonsnoring controls. SETTING University hospital sleep center. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-nine subjects with OSA and 17 controls. (More)
Testate amoebae are useful environmental indicators in ecological and palaeoecological studies from peatlands. Previous quantitative studies have focused on the peatlands of Northern and Central Europe, North America, and New Zealand and have considered a relatively restricted variety of peatland types, mostly ombrotrophic or Sphagnum-dominated while more(More)
The use of fluorescent indicators such as fura-2 (Grynkiewicz et al., 1985) to measure the cytosolic free calcium activity in retinal rods is complicated by the rods' sensitivity both to the fluorescence and to the light that excites it. By stimulating fluorescence from large numbers of rods in whole, loaded retinas and averaging repeated measurements,(More)