Richard J.O. Barnard

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The relationship between plaque pathology and disease duration was examined in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis who died early in the course of their illness. Myelin-stained sections revealed that most plaques examined in patients who died during the first month of their illness showed evidence of ongoing myelin destruction accompanied by a loss of(More)
The dynamics of primary progressive multiple sclerosis differ from those of the more common secondary progressive form. The observation by MRI that the frequency of enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA, a marker for blood-brain barrier dysfunction, is significantly less in the primary progressive form, has led to the hypothesis that inflammation is less intense(More)
Recent autopsy studies suggest that remyelinated shadow plaques located in otherwise intact white matter are the outcome of a previous single episode of acute demyelination. In the present study, of 98 remyelinated plaques examined in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis who died between 27 days and 5 years after clinical onset, 15 showed evidence of a(More)
Two families have been described previously with the features of an autosomal dominant familial cerebral amyloid angiopathy with nonneuritic plaque formation. The clinical features of the cases were dementia, spastic paralysis and ataxia. It has now been established that both families were descended from a common ancestor and the case histories of 26(More)
Twenty-one patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), all of whom were born in the Caribbean and who had migrated to the United Kingdom, are described. All had a progressive spastic paraparesis developing many years after immigration and all 19 tested had antibodies to the human T cell lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV1). The clinical and(More)
BACKGROUND Use of raltegravir with optimum background therapy is effective and well tolerated in treatment-experienced patients with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection. We compared the safety and efficacy of raltegravir with efavirenz as part of combination antiretroviral therapy for treatment-naive patients. METHODS Patients from 67 study centres on(More)
Formalin-fixed brain slices from four cases of subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy in which a firm diagnosis could be made both clinically and pathologically have been studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The slices were subsequently embedded in paraffin-wax or celloidin and sections were cut in the same plane as the MRI slices. There was a(More)
Three cases are presented in which clinical and radiological features suggested the diagnosis of glioma but surgical biopsy revealed a demyelinating process, with tissue destruction and cyst formation in two. One patient had clinically definite multiple sclerosis. Two had probable acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Treatment with high dose steroids is(More)
BACKGROUND To reduce lipid abnormalities and other side-effects associated with antiretroviral regimens containing lopinavir-ritonavir, patients might want to switch one or more components of their regimen. We compared substitution of raltegravir for lopinavir-ritonavir with continuation of lopinavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with stable viral(More)