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There has never been a wholesale way of identifying neurons that are monosynaptically connected either to some other cell group or, especially, to a single cell. The best available tools, transsynaptic tracers, are unable to distinguish weak direct connections from strong indirect ones. Furthermore, no tracer has proven potent enough to label any connected(More)
N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-SNAP play key roles in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway. In this study, NH2- and COOH-terminal truncation mutants of alpha-SNAP were assayed for ability to bind NSF and stimulate its ATPase activity. Deletion of up to 160 NH2-terminal amino acids had little effect on the ability of(More)
The relationship between plaque pathology and disease duration was examined in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis who died early in the course of their illness. Myelin-stained sections revealed that most plaques examined in patients who died during the first month of their illness showed evidence of ongoing myelin destruction accompanied by a loss of(More)
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic-plasma membrane is essential for communication between neurons. Disassembly of the SNARE complex requires the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF). To determine where in the synaptic-vesicle cycle NSF(More)
Recent autopsy studies suggest that remyelinated shadow plaques located in otherwise intact white matter are the outcome of a previous single episode of acute demyelination. In the present study, of 98 remyelinated plaques examined in 15 patients with multiple sclerosis who died between 27 days and 5 years after clinical onset, 15 showed evidence of a(More)
The dynamics of primary progressive multiple sclerosis differ from those of the more common secondary progressive form. The observation by MRI that the frequency of enhancement with gadolinium-DTPA, a marker for blood-brain barrier dysfunction, is significantly less in the primary progressive form, has led to the hypothesis that inflammation is less intense(More)
BACKGROUND We analyzed the 96-week results in the overall population and in prespecified subgroups from the ongoing STARTMRK study of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients. METHODS Eligible patients with HIV-1 RNA (vRNA) levels >5000 copies per milliliter and without baseline resistance to efavirenz, tenofovir, or emtricitabine were randomized in a(More)
Two families have been described previously with the features of an autosomal dominant familial cerebral amyloid angiopathy with nonneuritic plaque formation. The clinical features of the cases were dementia, spastic paralysis and ataxia. It has now been established that both families were descended from a common ancestor and the case histories of 26(More)
For over 40 years, avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV)-receptor interactions have been employed as a useful model system to study the mechanism of retroviral entry into cells. Pioneering studies on this system focused upon the genetic basis of the differential susceptibilities of different lines of chickens to infection by distinct subgroups of ASLV.(More)
Twenty-one patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), all of whom were born in the Caribbean and who had migrated to the United Kingdom, are described. All had a progressive spastic paraparesis developing many years after immigration and all 19 tested had antibodies to the human T cell lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 (HTLV1). The clinical and(More)