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There has never been a wholesale way of identifying neurons that are monosynaptically connected either to some other cell group or, especially, to a single cell. The best available tools, transsynaptic tracers, are unable to distinguish weak direct connections from strong indirect ones. Furthermore, no tracer has proven potent enough to label any connected(More)
We have investigated a potential mechanism by which a diet, similar in composition to the typical diet of most industrialized western societies rich in saturated fat and refined sugar (HFS), can influence brain structure and function via regulation of neurotrophins. We show that animals that learn a spatial memory task faster have more brain-derived(More)
N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and alpha-SNAP play key roles in vesicular traffic through the secretory pathway. In this study, NH2- and COOH-terminal truncation mutants of alpha-SNAP were assayed for ability to bind NSF and stimulate its ATPase activity. Deletion of up to 160 NH2-terminal amino acids had little effect on the ability of(More)
A diet high in total fat (HF) reduces hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a crucial modulator of synaptic plasticity, and a predictor of learning efficacy. We have evaluated the capacity of voluntary exercise to interact with the effects of diet at the molecular level. Animal groups were exposed to the HF diet for 2 months with(More)
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic-plasma membrane is essential for communication between neurons. Disassembly of the SNARE complex requires the ATPase N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF). To determine where in the synaptic-vesicle cycle NSF(More)
We have recently demonstrated that long-term consumption of a high-fat, refined-carbohydrate (HFS) diet induces hypertension (HTN) in normal rats compared with a low-fat, complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet. Limited evidence suggests that high-fat or high-sugar diets cause enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We therefore hypothesized that by(More)
This study was designed to examine the effects of a high-fat refined-sugar (HFS) or a low-fat complex-carbohydrate (LFCC) diet on insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose transport, plasma insulin, blood pressure, plasma triglycerides, plasma glycerol, body weight, and body fat in female Fischer rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport was significantly(More)
The food intake (FI), body weight (BWt) and water intake (WI) of adult male and female rats were compared during a seven day period of forced exercise in a treadmill. Work loads for the exercised groups were gradually increased across the seven-day test period, whereas work loads for the sedentary controls were maintained at the same level used during a(More)
The entry of glucose into muscle cells is achieved primarily via a carrier-mediated system consisting of protein transport molecules. GLUT-1 transporter isoform is normally found in the sarcolemmal (SL) membrane and is thought to be involved in glucose transport under basal conditions. With insulin stimulation, glucose transport is accelerated by(More)