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Biomass represents an abundant carbon-neutral renewable resource for the production of bioenergy and biomaterials, and its enhanced use would address several societal needs. Advances in genetics, biotechnology, process chemistry, and engineering are leading to a new manufacturing concept for converting renewable biomass to valuable fuels and products,(More)
Modern agriculture is heavily dependent on fossil resources. Both direct energy use for crop management and indirect energy use for fertilizers, pesticides and machinery production have contributed to the major increases in food production seen since the 1960s. However, the relationship between energy inputs and yields is not linear. Low-energy inputs can(More)
Short rotation coppice (SRC) willow is currently emerging as an important dedicated lignocellulosic energy crop in the UK. However, investigation into the variation between species and genotypes in their suitability for liquid transport biofuel processing has been limited. To address this, four traits relevant to biofuel processing (composition, enzymatic(More)
Minimizing nitrogen (N) fertilization inputs during cultivation is essential for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels. The biomass crop willow (Salix spp.) is considered to have low N fertilizer requirements due to efficient recycling of nutrients during the perennial cycle. To investigate how successfully different willow genotypes assimilate(More)
The use of hyperspectral imagery for robotics is predicted to increase as costs of sensors decline. A library of spectra can be used to map hyperspectral data to identify objects by comparing their reflectance signature to known materials. In this paper, methods used to build the spectral library to map geology on mine faces are described. The library(More)
UNLABELLED Cellular senescence is an irreversible side effect of some pharmaceuticals which can contribute to tissue degeneration. OBJECTIVE To determine whether pharmaceutical glucocorticoids induce senescence in tenocytes. METHODS Features of senescence (β-galactosidase activity at pH 6 (SA-β-gal) and active mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin(More)
—A new method is presented which combines a deterministic analytical method and a probabilistic measure to classify rock types on the basis of their hyperspectral curve shape. This method is a supervised learning algorithm using Gaussian Processes (GPs) and the Observation Angle Dependent (OAD) covariance function. The OAD covariance function makes use of(More)
Hyperspectral sensors provide a powerful tool for non-destructive analysis of rocks. While classification of spectrally distinct materials can be performed by traditional methods , identification of different rock types or grades composed of similar materials remains a challenge because spectra are in many cases similar. In this paper, we investigate the(More)
The purpose of this study was to reduce the extraction time, to hours instead of days, for quantification of the selenomethionine (SeMet) content of selenized yeast. An accelerated method using microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction and ultrasonication was optimized and applied to certified reference material (selenized yeast reference material (SELM)-1).(More)
BACKGROUND Short rotation coppice willow is a potential lignocellulosic feedstock in the United Kingdom and elsewhere; however, research on optimising willow specifically for bioethanol production has started developing only recently. We have used the feedstock Salix viminalis × Salix schwerinii cultivar 'Olof' in a three-month pot experiment with the aim(More)