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During fixation, the eyes are not still but often exhibit microsaccadic movements. The function of microsaccades is controversial, largely because the neural mechanisms responsible for their generation are unknown. Here, we show that the superior colliculus (SC), a retinotopically organized structure involved in voluntary-saccade target selection, plays a(More)
Primates use a combination of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements to stabilize the retinal image of selected objects within the high-acuity region near the fovea. Pursuit has traditionally been viewed as a relatively automatic behavior, driven by visual motion signals and mediated by pathways that connect visual areas in the cerebral cortex to motor(More)
1. Our goal was to discriminate between two classes of models for pursuit eye movements. The monkey's pursuit system and both classes of model exhibit oscillations around target velocity during tracking of ramp target motion. However, the mechanisms that determine the frequency of oscillations differ in the two classes of model. In "internal feedback"(More)
We report a model that reproduces many of the behavioral properties of smooth pursuit eye movements. The model is a negative-feedback system that uses three parallel visual motion pathways to drive pursuit. The three visual pathways process image motion, defined as target motion with respect to the moving eye, and provide signals related to image velocity,(More)
1. In three human subjects, we measured the latency of pursuit and saccadic eye movements made to an eccentric target after a fixated central target was extinguished. In one set of experiments, we varied the time interval between the extinction of the central target and the appearance of the eccentric target ("gap duration"). In a second set of experiments,(More)
The intermediate and deep layers of the monkey superior colliculus (SC) comprise a retinotopically organized map for eye movements. The rostral end of this map, corresponding to the representation of the fovea, contains neurons that have been referred to as "fixation cells" because they discharge tonically during active fixation and pause during the(More)
The countermanding paradigm provides a useful tool for examining the mechanisms responsible for cancelling eye movements. The key feature of this paradigm is that, on a minority of trials, a stop signal is introduced some time after the appearance of the target, indicating that the subject should cancel the incipient eye movement. If the delay in giving the(More)
Previous research has demonstrated learning in the pursuit system, but it is unclear whether these effects are the result of changes in visual or motor processing. The ability to maintain smooth pursuit during the transient disappearance of a visual target provides a way to assess pursuit properties in the absence of visual inputs. To study the long-term(More)