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Using simple physical arguments we investigate the capabilities of a quantum computer based on cold trapped ions. From the limitations imposed on such a device by spontaneous decay, laser phase coherence, ion heating and other sources of error, we derive a bound between the number of laser interactions and the number of ions that may be used. The largest(More)
OBJECTIVE Morton's neuroma is a common cause of forefoot pain. For this study, we assessed the efficacy of a series of sonographically guided alcohol injections into the lesion. SUBJECTS AND METHODS One hundred one consecutive patients with Morton's neuroma were included in this prospective series. An average of 4.1 treatments per person were(More)
BACKGROUND Some 10-20 per cent of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) at surgery following preoperative chemoradiation (CRT). Some demonstrate a sustained clinical complete response (cCR), defined as absence of clinically detectable residual tumour after CRT, and do not undergo resection. The aim of(More)
INTRODUCTION Local excision is considered inappropriate treatment for T3-T4 rectal adenocarcinomas, as it cannot provide prognostic information regarding lymph node involvement and has a high risk of pelvic recurrence. Preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) studies in rectal cancer suggest that a pathological complete response (pCR) in the primary tumour(More)
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as “key” material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can(More)
Modern optical networking techniques have the potential to greatly extend the applicability of quantum communications by moving beyond simple point-to-point optical links, and by leveraging existing fibre infrastructures. We experimentally demonstrate many of the fundamental capabilities that are required. These include optical-layer multiplexing,(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether identification of the iliolumbar ligaments is of practical use for numbering lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV). MATERIALS AND METHODS Five hundred consecutive lumbar spine MRI studies were reviewed. A standard protocol of sagittal and axial T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo(More)
Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential for widespread real-world applications. To date no secure long-distance experiment has demonstrated the truly practical operation needed to move QKD from the laboratory to the real world due largely to limitations in synchronization and poor detector performance. Here we report results obtained using a fully(More)