Richard J. Hughes

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OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine whether identification of the iliolumbar ligaments is of practical use for numbering lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV). MATERIALS AND METHODS Five hundred consecutive lumbar spine MRI studies were reviewed. A standard protocol of sagittal and axial T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo(More)
OBJECTIVE Morton's neuroma is a common cause of forefoot pain. For this study, we assessed the efficacy of a series of sonographically guided alcohol injections into the lesion. SUBJECTS AND METHODS One hundred one consecutive patients with Morton's neuroma were included in this prospective series. An average of 4.1 treatments per person were(More)
The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultralow-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photodetectors, we have implemented the first version of a decoy-state protocol that incorporates finite(More)
Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing(More)
Modern optical networking techniques have the potential to greatly extend the applicability of quantum communications by moving beyond simple point-to-point optical links, and by leveraging existing fibre infrastructures. We experimentally demonstrate many of the fundamental capabilities that are required. These include optical-layer multiplexing,(More)
The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as “key” material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is a new technique for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can(More)
Use of low-noise detectors can both increase the secret bit rate of long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and dramatically extend the length of a fibre optic link over which secure key can be distributed. Previous work has demonstrated use of ultra-low-noise transitionedge sensors (TESs) in a QKD system with transmission over 50 km. In this work, we(More)
The development and theory of an experiment to investigate quantum computation with trapped calcium ions is described. The ion trap, laser and ion requirements are determined, and the parameters required for quantum logic operations as well as simple quantum factoring are described. PACS numbers: 32.80.Qk, 42.50.Vk, 89.80.+h LA-UR-97-3301 Address(More)