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Manual selection of single particles in images acquired using cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) will become a significant bottleneck when datasets of a hundred thousand or even a million particles are required for structure determination at near atomic resolution. Algorithm development of fully automated particle selection is thus an important research(More)
We review and synthesize recent developments in the study of the invasion of communities in heterogeneous environments, considering both the invasibility of the community and impacts to the community. We consider both empirical and theoretical studies. For each of three major kinds of environmental heterogeneity (temporal, spatial and invader-driven), we(More)
Protein synthesis in mammalian cells requires initiation factor eIF3, a approximately 750-kilodalton complex that controls assembly of 40S ribosomal subunits on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) bearing either a 5'-cap or an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions show that eIF3, a five-lobed particle, interacts with the hepatitis(More)
Standard economic theory predicts that exploitation alone is unlikely to result in species extinction because of the escalating costs of finding the last individuals of a declining species. We argue that the human predisposition to place exaggerated value on rarity fuels disproportionate exploitation of rare species, rendering them even rarer and thus more(More)
The discovery of new or divergent viruses using metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing has become more commonplace. The preparation of a sample is known to have an effect on the representation of virus sequences within the metagenomic dataset yet comparatively little attention has been given to this. Physical enrichment techniques are often applied to(More)
The use of a Zernike-type phase plate in biologic cryo-electron microscopy allows the imaging, without using defocus, of what are predominantly phase objects. It is thought that such phase-plate implementations might result in higher quality images, free from the problems of CTF correction that occur when images must be recorded at extremely high values of(More)
The emergence of hybrids between native and introduced species is an increasingly widespread problem which can alter entire ecosystems. We present a general model for the hybridization of two plant species to investigate the conditions under which hybrid invasions can occur, and the ecological and genetic consequences of such hybridizations. We find that(More)
Animal migrations are spectacular and migratory species have been shown to transmit pathogens that pose risks to human health. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen dispersal, empirical work indicates that migration can often have the opposite effect of lowering disease risk. Key to assessing disease threats to migratory species is the(More)