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White matter disruption is an important determinant of cognitive impairment after brain injury, but conventional neuroimaging underestimates its extent. In contrast, diffusion tensor imaging provides a validated and sensitive way of identifying the impact of axonal injury. The relationship between cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury and white(More)
The relationships between perception of verticality by different sensory modalities, lateropulsion and pushing behaviour and lesion location were investigated in 86 patients with a first stroke. Participants sat restrained in a drum-like framework facing along the axis of rotation. They gave estimates of their subjective postural vertical by signalling the(More)
Efficient behavior involves the coordinated activity of large-scale brain networks, but the way in which these networks interact is uncertain. One theory is that the salience network (SN)--which includes the anterior cingulate cortex, presupplementary motor area, and anterior insulae--regulates dynamic changes in other networks. If this is the case, then(More)
Traumatic brain injury often results in cognitive impairments that limit recovery. The underlying pathophysiology of these impairments is uncertain, which restricts clinical assessment and management. Here, we use magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypotheses that: (i) traumatic brain injury results in abnormalities of functional connectivity within key(More)
We studied 171 consecutive patients with an acute hemispheric stroke (69 right hemisphere, 102 left), at 2-3 days post-stroke. A standardized test battery, previously validated in patients with acute stroke, was used to detect a wide variety of neglect phenomena and related disorders. Visual neglect was found in 82% of assessable right hemisphere patients(More)
Reorganization of motor circuits in the cerebral cortex is thought to contribute to recovery following stroke. These can be examined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using measures of corticospinal tract integrity and intracortical excitability. However, little is known about how these changes develop during the important early period(More)
Forty four consecutive patients with acute hemispheric stroke and forty seven elderly controls with no neurological disease were assessed for visuo-spatial neglect, using a modified neglect test battery. Neglect was found to be equally common in patients with right hemisphere and left hemisphere stroke three days after stroke (72% versus 62%). It was more(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of a single session of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, given as Theta Burst Stimulation, on behavioural and physiological measures of hand function in chronic stroke patients. METHODS Six chronic stroke patients with incomplete recovery of the hand were tested under three conditions: excitatory TBS over the(More)
OBJECTIVE Patient outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is highly variable. The underlying pathophysiology of this is poorly understood, but inflammation is potentially an important factor. Microglia orchestrate many aspects of this response. Their activation can be studied in vivo using the positron emission tomography (PET) ligand [11C](R)PK11195(More)
Movement-related brain activation patterns after subcortical stroke are characterized by relative overactivations in cortical motor areas compared with controls. In patients able to perform a motor task, overactivations are greater in those with more motor impairment. We hypothesized that recruitment of motor regions would shift from primary to secondary(More)