Richard J. Gilbert

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To demonstrate the relationship between lingual myoarchitecture and mechanics during swallowing, we performed a finite-element (FE) simulation of lingual deformation employing mesh aligned with the vector coordinates of myofiber tracts obtained by diffusion tensor imaging with tractography in humans. Material properties of individual elements were depicted(More)
Genetic programming, in conjunction with advanced analytical instruments, is a novel tool for the investigation of complex biological systems at the whole-tissue level. In this study, samples from tomato fruit grown hydroponically under both high-and low-salt conditions were analysed using Ž. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR , with the aim of(More)
The ability to resolve complex fiber populations in muscular tissues is important for relating tissue structure with mechanical function. To address this issue in the case of tongue, we employed diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI), an MRI method for determining three-dimensional myoarchitecture where myofiber populations are variably aligned. By specifically(More)
PURPOSE To study the anatomical relationships involving the intrinsic and extrinsic myofiber populations of the human tongue employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with tractography. MATERIALS AND METHODS Images of the human tongue in vivo were obtained using a twice-refocused spin echo DTI pulse sequence at 1.5 T, isotropic 3 x 3 x 3 mm(3) voxels,(More)
Many newly discovered genes are of unknown function. DNA microarrays are a method for determining the expression levels of all genes in an organism for which a complete genome sequence is available. By comparing the expression changes under different conditions it should be possible to assign functions to these genes. However, many hundreds of thousands of(More)
The myoarchitecture of the tongue is believed to consist of a complex network of interwoven fibers, which function together to produce a near limitless array of functional deformations. These deformations contribute mechanically to speech production and to oral cavity food handling during swallowing. We have previously imaged the 3D myoarchitecture of the(More)
The anatomy of the mammalian tongue consists of an intricate array of variably aligned and extensively interwoven muscle fibers. As a result, it is particularly difficult to resolve the relationship between the tongue's microscopic anatomy and tissue-scale mechanical function. In order to address this question, we employed a method, diffusion spectrum(More)
The mammalian tongue is believed to fall into a class of organs known as muscular hydrostats, organs for which muscle contraction both generates and provides the skeletal support for motion. We propose that the myoarchitecture of the tongue, consisting of intricate arrays of muscular fibers, forms the structural basis for hydrostatic deformation. Owing to(More)
The human tongue is a structurally complex and extremely flexible organ. In order to better understand the mechanical basis for lingual deformations, we modeled a primitive movement of the tongue, sagittal tongue bending. We hypothesized that sagittal bending is a synergistic deformation derived from co-contraction of the longitudinalis and transversus(More)
In order to determine the three-dimensional (3D) resolved muscular anatomy of the mammalian esophagus, we have examined its myoarchitecture with diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging (DSI) and tractography. DSI measures diffusion displacement as a function of magnetic gradients of varied direction and intensity and displays the displacement profile(More)