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Across large parts of the world, wildlife has to coexist with human activity in highly modified and fragmented landscapes. Combining concepts from population viability analysis and spatial reserve design, this study develops efficient quantitative methods for identifying conservation core areas at large, even national or continental scales. The proposed(More)
BACKGROUND Determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples remains an important statistical problem. Prior work in this area has featured the use of t-tests with pooled estimates of the sample variance based on similarly expressed genes. These methods do not display consistent behavior across the entire range of pooling and(More)
Interpretation of global biodiversity change is hampered by a lack of information on the historical status of most species in most parts of the world. Here we show that declines and increases can be deduced from current species distributions alone, using spatial patterns of occupancy combined with distribution size. Declining species show sparse, fragmented(More)
Concern about biodiversity loss has led to increased public investment in conservation. Whereas there is a widespread perception that such initiatives have been unsuccessful, there are few quantitative tests of this perception. Here, we evaluate whether rates of biodiversity change have altered in recent decades in three European countries (Great Britain,(More)
Thermal constraints on development are often invoked to predict insect distributions. These constraints tend to be characterized in species distribution models (SDMs) by calculating development time based on a constant lower development temperature (LDT). Here, we assessed whether species-specific estimates of LDT based on laboratory experiments can improve(More)
OBJECT Hydrocephalus results from abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes or flow patterns. The absorption of CSF is determined largely by pressures within veins and venous sinuses in the head and adjacent to the spine. Most surgical solutions for hydrocephalus involve diversion of excess CSF into alternative absorption sites, and most of these solutions(More)
OBJECTIVE The absorption of cerebrospinal fluid occurs primarily by means of arachnoid granulations (AG) in the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and the lacunae laterales (LL) in the parasagittal dura. Previous descriptions of this region suggest a network of intradural channels, but finer details of extent and relationship between channels and AG were not(More)
An in silico protein model based on the Kauffman NK-landscape, where N is the number of variable positions in a protein and K is the degree of coupling between variable positions, was used to compare alternative search strategies for directed evolution. A simple genetic algorithm (GA) was used to model the performance of a standard DNA shuffling protocol.(More)
Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) are critical molecules involved in the physiological functions of macrophages, such as chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We demonstrate that macrophage adherence promotes rapid changes in physiological functions that depend on translational upregulation of preformed ROCK-1 mRNA, but not ROCK-2 mRNA. Before adherence, both ROCK(More)
1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are(More)