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1. These studies were initiated to understand the neural sites and mechanisms controlling head movements during gaze shifts. Gaze shifts are made by saccadic eye movements with and without head movements. Sites were stimulated electrically within the brain stem of awake, trained monkeys relatively free to make head movements to study the head-movement(More)
The pulvinar nucleus is a major source of input to visual cortical areas, but many important facts are still unknown concerning the organization of pulvinocortical (PC) connections and their possible interactions with other connectional systems. In order to address some of these questions, we labeled PC connections by extracellular injections of(More)
Attempts were made to determine brainstem and cerebellar afferent and efferent projections of the superior vestibular nucleus (SVN) and cell group 'y' ('y') in the cat using axoplasmic tracers. Injections of HRP, WGA-HRP and [3H]amino acids were made into SVN and 'y' using two different infratentorial stereotaxic approaches. Controls were provided by(More)
Advances in the phenology of organisms are often attributed to climate change, but alternatively, may reflect a publication bias towards advances and may be caused by environmental factors unrelated to climate change. Both factors are investigated using the breeding dates of 25 long-term studied populations of Ficedula flycatchers across Europe. Trends in(More)
Transneuronal transport of [3H]proline, [3H]fucose, and [3H]leucine in various combinations from pledgets implanted in the ampulla of a single semicircular duct was studied in the squirrel monkey and arctic ground squirrel after long survival periods. Tritiated amino acids implanted in any single ampulla resulted in labeling of nearly all vestibular and(More)
Based on biomechanic and electromyographic studies, it has been argued that the two heads of the human lateral pterygoid muscle (LPt) are reciprocally active during the masticatory cycle. Thus, it has been proposed that the heads be considered separate muscles. However, questions about the accuracy of these data have arisen. The authors hypothesized that(More)
The vertebrate dorsal mesencephalon consists of the superior colliculus, the dorsal portion of the periaqueductal gray, and the mesencephalic trigeminal neurons in between. These structures, via their descending pathways, take part in various behavioral responses to environmental stimuli. This study was undertaken to compare the origins and trajectories of(More)
1. In the companion article, a variety of head movements were elicited by stimulation in, and adjacent to, the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Cowie and Robinson 1994). We refer to this area, caudal to the abducens nucleus, as the gigantocellular head movement region. In the present paper, the anatomical connections of this region, as determined by(More)
Eye and head movements are strongly interconnected, because they both play an important role in accurately determining the direction of the visual field. The rostral brainstem includes two areas which contain neurons that participate in the control of both movement and position of the head and eyes. These regions are the caudal third of Field H of Forel,(More)
Pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with a poor prognosis. Reduction of pulmonary artery pressure in COPD by prolonged oxygen treatment has been shown to be associated with increased survival. In an attempt to find a suitable pharmacologic method of reducing pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular(More)