Richard J. Carter

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All cancers carry somatic mutations. A subset of these somatic alterations, termed driver mutations, confer selective growth advantage and are implicated in cancer development, whereas the remainder are passengers. Here we have sequenced the genomes of a malignant melanoma and a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same person, providing the first(More)
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) persists by driving clonal proliferation of infected T lymphocytes. A high proviral load predisposes to HTLV-1-associated diseases. Yet the reasons for the variation within and between persons in the abundance of HTLV-1-infected clones remain unknown. We devised a high-throughput protocol to map the genomic(More)
The Teramac configurable hardware system can execute synchronous logic designs of up to one million gates at rates up to l megahertz. A fully configured Teramac includes half a gigabyte of RAM and hardware support for large multiported register files. The system has been built from custom FPGA's packaged in large multichip modules (MCMs). A large custom(More)
Teramac is a large custom computer which works correctly despite the fact that three quarters of its FPGAs contain defects. This is accomplished through unprecedented use of defect tolerance, which substantially reduces Teramac’s cost and permits it to have an unusually complex interconnection network. Teramac tolerates defective resources, like gates and(More)
It is difficult to exploit the massive, fine-grained parallelism of configurable hardware with a conventional application programðming language such as C, Pascal or Java. The difficulty arises from the mismatch between the synchronous, concurrent processing capability of the hardware and the expressiveness of the lanðguage-the so-called "semantic gap." We(More)
The identification and application of reliable fossil calibrations represents a key component of many molecular studies of evolutionary timescales. In studies of plants, most paleontological calibrations are associated with macrofossils. However, the pollen record can also inform age calibrations if fossils matching extant pollen groups are found. Recent(More)
1. Abstract Prototypes are invaluable for studying special purpose parallel architectures and custom computing. This paper describes a new FPGA, called Plasma— the heart of a configurable custom computing engine (Teramac) that can execute synchronous logic designs up to one million gates at rates up to one megahertz. Plasma FPGA’s using 0.8 micron CMOS are(More)
Mountains are often more species-rich than lowlands. This could be the result of migration from lowlands to mountains, of a greater survival rate in mountains, or of a higher diversification rate in mountains. We investigated this question in the globally distributed family Ericaceae, which includes c. 4426 species ranging from sea level to > 5000 m. We(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is characterized by low sequence diversity making this bacterium one of the classical examples of a genetically monomorphic pathogen. Because of this limited DNA sequence variation, routine genotyping of clinical MTBC isolates for epidemiological purposes relies(More)
Teramac is a reconfigurable custom computer, capable of running million-gate user designs at one megahertz and out-performing workstations a hundred-fold on highly parallel applications. It achieves these results in spite of thousands of defects. Teramac, composed of 1728 field programmable gate arrays and over a quarter million interconnections, was made(More)