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The fossil record is our only direct means for evaluating shifts in biodiversity through Earth's history. However, analyses of fossil marine invertebrates have demonstrated that geological megabiases profoundly influence fossil preservation and discovery, obscuring true diversity signals. Comparable studies of vertebrate palaeodiversity patterns remain in(More)
Mutations in the SPAST (SPG4) gene, which encodes the microtubule-severing protein spastin, are the most common cause of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Following on from previous work in our laboratory showing that spastin is required for axon outgrowth, we report here that the related microtubule-severing protein katanin is also(More)
OBJECTIVE Although epidemiological surveys generally indicate declining rates of bedwetting with age, recent studies show that children with severe nocturnal enuresis have lower prevalence rates, which persist into adolescence. This study reports prevalence rates of both infrequent bedwetting (IB) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) at five time points during(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychological problems associated with bedwetting and combined (day and night) wetting in children aged around 7(1/2) years. METHODS Participants were a cohort of over 8000 children enrolled in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Parents completed postal questionnaires assessing common(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in a large cohort of children at 7.5 years old, and to examine the frequency of variables such as gender, severity, associated elimination problems, and clinical signs within the identified group. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Of an original cohort of 13 971 infants alive at 12 months, 11 251 who(More)
A major macroevolutionary question concerns how long-term patterns of body-size evolution are underpinned by smaller scale processes along lineages. One outstanding long-term transition is the replacement of basal therapsids (stem-group mammals) by archosauromorphs, including dinosaurs, as the dominant large-bodied terrestrial fauna during the Triassic(More)
Palaeobiologists frequently attempt to identify examples of co-evolutionary interactions over extended geological timescales. These hypotheses are often intuitively appealing, as co-evolution is so prevalent in extant ecosystems, and are easy to formulate; however, they are much more difficult to test than their modern analogues. Among the more intriguing(More)
Cope's rule, the tendency towards evolutionary increases in body size, is a long-standing macroevolutionary generalization that has the potential to provide insights into directionality in evolution; however, both the definition and identification of Cope's rule are controversial and problematic. A recent study [J. Evol. Biol. 21 (2008) 618] examined body(More)
BACKGROUND Rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaurs are characteristic elements of Late Cretaceous European vertebrate faunas and were previously collected from lower Campanian to Maastrichtian continental deposits. Phylogenetic analyses have placed rhabdodontids among basal ornithopods as the sister taxon to the clade consisting of Tenontosaurus, Dryosaurus,(More)
BACKGROUND Heterodontosaurids are an important but enigmatic and poorly understood early radiation of ornithischian dinosaurs. The late-surviving heterodontosaurid Fruitadens haagarorum from the Late Jurassic (early Tithonian) Morrison Formation of the western USA is represented by remains of several small (<1 metre total body length, <1 kg body mass)(More)