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OBJECTIVE To investigate the psychological problems associated with bedwetting and combined (day and night) wetting in children aged around 7(1/2) years. METHODS Participants were a cohort of over 8000 children enrolled in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Parents completed postal questionnaires assessing common(More)
OBJECTIVE Although epidemiological surveys generally indicate declining rates of bedwetting with age, recent studies show that children with severe nocturnal enuresis have lower prevalence rates, which persist into adolescence. This study reports prevalence rates of both infrequent bedwetting (IB) and nocturnal enuresis (NE) at five time points during(More)
The fossil record is our only direct means for evaluating shifts in biodiversity through Earth's history. However, analyses of fossil marine invertebrates have demonstrated that geological megabiases profoundly influence fossil preservation and discovery, obscuring true diversity signals. Comparable studies of vertebrate palaeodiversity patterns remain in(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis (NE) in a large cohort of children at 7.5 years old, and to examine the frequency of variables such as gender, severity, associated elimination problems, and clinical signs within the identified group. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Of an original cohort of 13 971 infants alive at 12 months, 11 251 who(More)
OBJECTIVE In the treatment of childhood nocturnal enuresis the enuresis alarm has consistently proved effective. However, the various proposals advanced to explain its therapeutic mechanism generally lack empirical support. In this clinical trial we investigated the hypothesis that the alarm promotes reduced nocturnal urine production through increased(More)
Background: Cumulative trauma disorders of the upper extremities (CTD) have become increasingly important in workers' compensation caseloads over the last two decades. Relative to occupational back pain, CTD have been much less studied. Methods: We analyzed post-injury employment patterns and return-to-work probabilities for a sample of Ontario workers with(More)
A major macroevolutionary question concerns how long-term patterns of body-size evolution are underpinned by smaller scale processes along lineages. One outstanding long-term transition is the replacement of basal therapsids (stem-group mammals) by archosauromorphs, including dinosaurs, as the dominant large-bodied terrestrial fauna during the Triassic(More)
A fundamental contribution of paleobiology to macroevolutionary theory has been the illumination of deep time patterns of diversification. However, recent work has suggested that taxonomic diversity counts taken from the fossil record may be strongly biased by uneven spatiotemporal sampling. Although morphological diversity (disparity) is also frequently(More)
Palaeobiologists frequently attempt to identify examples of co-evolutionary interactions over extended geological timescales. These hypotheses are often intuitively appealing, as co-evolution is so prevalent in extant ecosystems, and are easy to formulate; however, they are much more difficult to test than their modern analogues. Among the more intriguing(More)
Patterns of postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) indicate that pterosaurs possessed components of a bird-like respiratory system, including a series of ventilatory air-sacs. However, the presence of PSP in the oldest known pterosaurs has not been unambiguously demonstrated by previous studies. Here we provide the first unequivocal documentation of PSP(More)