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This paper looks at the assumptions driving mass marketed software. These assumptions explain why traditional software engineering methods and processes appear to have less economic value in a mass market. The assumptions lead to a model that predicts observed patterns such as (I) rapid development, (2)1ower quality, and (3) an initially dominant product(More)
Proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is an imaging modality that is based on the tracking of individual protons as they traverse an object. These paths deviate from a straight line due to the effects of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) and must be tracked using a formalism that models MCS. A sparse iterative solver, like the algebraic reconstruction technique(More)
For twenty years software has cost more than planned, has been completed late, and failed to achieve what it was intended to do. There exists gaps between theory, curriculum, and practice. I have been trying to fill in the gaps for 15 years. In 1985 I presented a paper that listed more than 20 activities that can improve the production of software. Some of(More)
Image reconstruction of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) is a process of solving x within a linear equation Ax = b, where A is path matrix and b is electron density matrix. Iterative Reconstruction Techniques are widely used to generate relative electron density maps for proton therapy. The reordering subsets methods, which group projections data in a(More)
The dynamics of any situation refers to how the situation changes over the course of time. A basic observation of dynamical systems is how extraordinarily complicated the motions of a system can be, even when the underlying rules are extremely simple. One of the main approaches to dynamical systems is Differential equations. Given any initial state, a(More)