Richard I. Shader

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The in vitro biotransformation of bupropion to hydroxybupropion was studied in human liver microsomes and microsomes containing heterologously expressed human cytochromes P450 (CYP). The mean (+/-S.E.) K(m) in four human liver microsomes was 89 (+/-14) microM. In microsomes containing cDNA-expressed CYPs, hydroxybupropion formation was mediated only by(More)
Midazolam (MDZ) and triazolam (TRZ) hydroxylation, reactions considered to be cytochrome P-4503A (CYP3A)-mediated in humans, were examined in mouse and human liver microsomes. In both species, alpha- and 4-hydroxy metabolites were the principal products. Western blotting with anti-CYP3A1 antibody detected a single band of immunoreactive protein in both(More)
The biotransformation of venlafaxine (VF) into its two major metabolites, O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) was studied in vitro with human liver microsomes and with microsomes containing individual human cytochromes from cDNA-transfected human lymphoblastoid cells. VF was coincubated with selective cytochrome P450 (CYP)(More)
Dextromethorphan (DMO), a cough suppressing synthetic analog of codeine, undergoes parallel O-demethylation to dextrorphan (DOP), and N-demethylation to 3-methoxymorphinan (MEM), in humans. 3-hydroxymorphinan, a didemethylated metabolite, is formed secondarily. O-demethylation activity is well established as an index reaction for CYP2D6. However, this(More)
The in vitro biotransformation of sildenafil to its major circulating metabolite, UK-103,320, was studied in human liver microsomes and in microsomes containing heterologously expressed human cytochromes. In human liver microsomes, the mean K(m) (+/-S.E. ) was 14.4 +/- 2.0 microM. A screen of the chemical inhibitors omeprazole (10 microM), quinidine (10(More)
We evaluated the functional sensitivity of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine supramolecular complex in 9 patients with panic disorder and 10 psychiatrically healthy control subjects by comparing the effects of four logarithmically increasing doses of intravenous diazepam on saccadic eye movement velocity, memory, and self-rated sedation. Patients(More)
Ten healthy volunteers received a single 50-mg dose of diphenhydramine (DP) hydrochloride intravenously and orally on two separate occasions. Kinetics of DP and a major demethylated metabolite (DMDP) were determined from multiple plasma samples drawn during a 24- to 48-hour period after dosage. Modification of a gas chromatographic (GC) technique allowed(More)
Biotransformation of amitriptyline (AMI) to its demethylated product nortriptyline (NT) was studied in vitro with human liver microsomes from four different donors, preselected to reflect a range of metabolic rates. Reaction velocity versus substrate concentration was consistent with a sigmoid Vmax model. Vmax varied from 0.42 to 3.42 nmol/mg/min, Km from(More)
Sources of individual variation in plasma methylphenidate (MP) concentrations during usual clinical use are not established. This was evaluated in a series of patients receiving clinical treatment with MP. A single plasma MP concentration was determined in each of 273 children and adolescents ages 5 to 18 years (mean: 11.1 years) who were clinically good(More)
The pharmacokinetics of diazepam (DZ) and its major metabolite desmethyldiazepam (DMDZ) in both plasma and brain after a single 5 mg/kg IP dose of diazepam were studied in rats. Four rats were sacrificed at 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after the dose. DZ rapidly disappeared from plasma and brain in parallel, with nearly identical(More)