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Activation of early response genes by interferons (IFNs) requires tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins. It was found that the serine-threonine kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [specifically, the 42-kilodalton MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2)] interacted with the(More)
Transcription of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) gene in endothelial cells is induced by lipopolysaccharide and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Previous studies have demonstrated that tandem binding sites for the inducible transcription factor NF-kappa B are necessary but not(More)
The p38 mitogen-activated protein (Map) kinase plays a critical role in the generation of signals in response to stress stimuli, but its role in interferon (IFN) signaling and its potential regulatory role in the activation of Jak-signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) pathway are not known. In the present study, we provide evidence that(More)
The immunoregulatory cytokine IL-12 plays a central role in cell-mediated immune responses through its effects on NK cells and T lymphocytes. While IL-12 is known to share some functions with other cytokines, such as IFN-alpha, it also maintains distinct roles, such as its ability to induce Th1 differentiation. The molecular basis for these unique and(More)
Human alpha- and beta-interferons (IFNs) stimulate rapid but transient increases in transcription from a set of previously quiescent genes. Protein synthesis is not required for initial stimulation, but duration of the response is limited to a few hours by a process requiring synthesis of new proteins. An IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) was(More)
CONTEXT While trials have demonstrated that carotid endarterectomy is superior to best medical therapy, most recently among asymptomatic patients, uses and outcomes of the procedure in more representative settings have not been established. OBJECTIVES To profile the use and outcomes of carotid endarterectomy in a representative sample of Ohio's Medicare(More)
The signal transduction pathway through which interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) stimulates transcription of a defined set of genes involves activation of DNA-binding factors specific for the IFN alpha-stimulated response element (ISRE). IFN-stimulated gene factor-3 (ISGF3), the positive regulator of transcription, was derived in response to IFN alpha treatment(More)
CD8(+) T lymphocytes can suppress human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by secreting a soluble factor(s) known as CD8(+) T-lymphocyte antiviral factor (CAF). One site of CAF action is inhibition of HIV-1 RNA transcription, particularly at the step of long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven gene expression. However, the mechanism by which CAF(More)
The TAP1 and LMP2 genes are central for class I MHC function and share a common promoter. Here, we analyze the molecular mechanism of IFN gamma up-regulation of TAP1 and LMP2. In vivo footprinting indicates IFN gamma up-regulates protein-DNA contacts at an IRF-E that is essential for the up-regulation of TAP1 and LMP2 by IFN gamma. Gel shift analysis(More)
Genes in human chromosomes that normally require induction by alpha-interferon are activated after calcium phosphate (CaPO4) transfection, but not after DEAE-dextran transfection. The c-fos gene and genes stimulated by gamma-interferon also are affected by CaPO4-DNA precipitates, but the calcium ionophore A23187 stimulates only c-fos among this group. These(More)