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Muscle eye brain disease (MEB) and Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) are congenital muscular dystrophies with associated, similar brain malformations. The FCMD gene, fukutin, shares some homology with fringe-like glycosyltransferases, and the MEB gene, POMGnT1, seems to be a new glycosyltransferase. Here we show, in both MEB and FCMD patients,(More)
Study of monogenic mitochondrial cardiomyopathies may yield insights into mitochondrial roles in cardiac development and disease. Here, we combined patient-derived and genetically engineered induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with tissue engineering to elucidate the pathophysiology underlying the cardiomyopathy of Barth syndrome (BTHS), a mitochondrial(More)
The nemaline myopathies are characterized by weakness and eosinophilic, rodlike (nemaline) inclusions in muscle fibers. Amish nemaline myopathy is a form of nemaline myopathy common among the Old Order Amish. In the first months of life, affected infants have tremors with hypotonia and mild contractures of the shoulders and hips. Progressive worsening of(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports indicate an association between autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disorders of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. One study suggested that children with both diagnoses are clinically indistinguishable from children with idiopathic autism. There are, however, no detailed analyses of the clinical and laboratory findings in(More)
A large MERRF pedigree permitted the direct testing of the predictions for a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. A mtDNA mutation was demonstrated by proving maternal inheritance and by identifying specific deficiencies in muscle energetics and mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and IV. mtDNA heteroplasmy (a mixture of mutant and wild-type mtDNAs) was(More)
The behavior phenotype of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) was studied by assessing behavior, social, and communication abilities, sensory hyperreactivity, and the deficits associated with autistic disorder. Fifty-six SLOS subjects, age 0.3 to 32.3 years, were evaluated by multiple age-dependent questionnaires and telephone interviews. Of the 56 subjects,(More)
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS, RSH/SLO syndrome, MIM 270400) is an autosomal recessive multiple malformation/mental retardation syndrome initially described by Smith et al. [1964] that is due to a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis. The behavioral phenotype of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome demonstrates cognitive abilities from borderline intellectual(More)
Our previous experience with abnormal fatty acid metabolism in several children with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) prompted evaluation of fatty acid metabolism in a larger cohort. Thirty-three infants with severe infantile SMA were shown to have a significantly increased ratio of dodecanoic to tetradecanoic acid in plasma compared with normal infants and 6(More)
Although Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS), a genetic condition of impaired cholesterol biosynthesis, is associated with autism [Tierney et al., 2001; Am J Med Genet 98:191-200.], the incidence of SLOS and other sterol disorders among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is unknown. This study investigated (1) the incidence of biochemically(More)
The purpose of this study was to further identify and quantify the fatty acid oxidation abnormalities in spinal muscular atrophy, correlate these with disease severity, and identify specific underlying defect(s). Fifteen children with spinal muscular atrophy (3 type I, 8 type II, 4 type III) were studied. Serum carnitine total/free ratios demonstrated a(More)