Richard Hughey

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Of the sequence comparison methods, profile-based methods perform with greater selectively than those that use pairwise comparisons. Of the profile methods, hidden Markov models (HMMs) are apparently the best. The first part of this paper describes calculations that (i) improve the performance of HMMs and (ii) determine a good procedure for creating HMMs(More)
MOTIVATION A new hidden Markov model method (SAM-T98) for finding remote homologs of protein sequences is described and evaluated. The method begins with a single target sequence and iteratively builds a hidden Markov model (HMM) from the sequence and homologs found using the HMM for database search. SAM-T98 is also used to construct model libraries(More)
Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a highly effective means of modeling a family of unaligned sequences or a common motif within a set of unaligned sequences. The trained HMM can then be used for discrimination or multiple alignment. The basic mathematical description of an HMM and its expectation-maximization training procedure is relatively straightforward.(More)
The sequences of related proteins can diverge beyond the point where their relationship can be recognised by pairwise sequence comparisons. In attempts to overcome this limitation, methods have been developed that use as a query, not a single sequence, but sets of related sequences or a representation of the characteristics shared by related sequences. Here(More)
Stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs) are applied to the problems of folding, aligning and modeling families of tRNA sequences. SCFGs capture the sequences' common primary and secondary structure and generalize the hidden Markov models (HMMs) used in related work on protein and DNA. Results show that after having been trained on as few as 20 tRNA(More)
We present a method for condensing the information in multiple alignments of proteins into a mixture of Dirichlet densities over amino acid distributions. Dirichlet mixture densities are designed to be combined with observed amino acid frequencies to form estimates of expected amino acid probabilities at each position in a profile, hidden Markov model or(More)
This article presents an overview of the SAM-T02 method for protein fold recognition and the UNDERTAKER program for ab initio predictions. The SAM-T02 server is an automatic method that uses two-track hidden Markov models (HMMS) to find and align template proteins from PDB to the target protein. The two-track HMMs use an amino acid alphabet and one of(More)
This paper presents the mathematical foundations of Dirichlet mixtures, which have been used to improve database search results for homologous sequences, when a variable number of sequences from a protein family or domain are known. We present a method for condensing the information in a protein database into a mixture of Dirichlet densities. These mixtures(More)
This paper presents results of blind predictions submitted to the CASP3 protein structure prediction experiment. We made predictions using the SAM-T98 method, an iterative hidden Markov model-based method for constructing protein family profiles. The method is purely sequence-based, using no structural information, and yet was able to predict structures as(More)
MOTIVATION Protein sequence alignments have a myriad of applications in bioinformatics, including secondary and tertiary structure prediction, homology modeling, and phylogeny. Unfortunately, all alignment methods make mistakes, and mistakes in alignments often yield mistakes in their application. Thus, a method to identify and remove suspect alignment(More)