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Chemokine receptors comprise a large family of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors differentially expressed in diverse cell types. Biological activities have been most clearly defined in leukocytes, where chemokines coordinate development, differentiation, anatomic distribution, trafficking, and effector functions and thereby regulate(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are a family of proteins that chemoattract and activate immune cells by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of their targets. We have shown previously that chemokine receptors including the interleukin-8 receptor B (CXCR2) and the Duffy blood group antigen are expressed on subsets of neurons in various regions of the(More)
A decade ago several new cytokines were described that orchestrated the activation and migration of immune cells. These newly described cytokines, of which interleukin-8 (IL-8) was a representative member, defined a novel group of molecules called chemokines (chemotactic cytokines). Chemokines are low molecular weight, 8-12 kDa, basic proteins that have(More)
CXCR4, a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor for the Cys-X-Cys class of chemokines, is one of several chemokine receptors that can act as a co-receptor with CD4 for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) glycoprotein gp120 [1-3]. CXCR4 can mediate the entry of HIV-1 strains that specifically infect T cells, such as the IIB strain (see(More)
Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
IL-8 is expressed by activated and neoplastic astrocytes and enhances the survival of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Since mRNA encoding chemokine receptors have been demonstrated in brain, the expression of chemokine receptors by specific cell types in anatomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated. Archival tissues from various(More)
  • R Horuk
  • 2001
Although chemokines were originally defined as host defense proteins it is now clear that their repertoire of functions extend well beyond this role. For example chemokines such as MGSA have growth regulatory properties while members of the CXC chemokine family can be mediators or inhibitors of angiogenesis and may be important targets for oncology. Recent(More)
Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the major causes of human malaria, except in sub-Saharan Africa where people lack the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for P. vivax. Duffy negative human erythrocytes are resistant to invasion by P. vivax and the related monkey malaria, P. knowlesi. Several lines of evidence in the present study(More)
Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was(More)
Both CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor are necessary for infection of cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and most strains of HIV-2. The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are the major HIV-1 coreceptors, although some virus strains can also utilize alternative coreceptors such as CCR3 to infect cells. In contrast, most if not all simian(More)