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CXCR4, a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor for the Cys-X-Cys class of chemokines, is one of several chemokine receptors that can act as a co-receptor with CD4 for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) glycoprotein gp120 [1-3]. CXCR4 can mediate the entry of HIV-1 strains that specifically infect T cells, such as the IIB strain (see(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are a family of proteins that chemoattract and activate immune cells by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of their targets. We have shown previously that chemokine receptors including the interleukin-8 receptor B (CXCR2) and the Duffy blood group antigen are expressed on subsets of neurons in various regions of the(More)
IL-8 is expressed by activated and neoplastic astrocytes and enhances the survival of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Since mRNA encoding chemokine receptors have been demonstrated in brain, the expression of chemokine receptors by specific cell types in anatomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated. Archival tissues from various(More)
Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators and attractants of eosinophils and basophils. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, with homology to other chemoattractant receptors, that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a(More)
Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the major causes of human malaria, except in sub-Saharan Africa where people lack the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for P. vivax. Duffy negative human erythrocytes are resistant to invasion by P. vivax and the related monkey malaria, P. knowlesi. Several lines of evidence in the present study(More)
Plasmodium vivax and the related simian malarial parasite P. knowlesi use the Duffy blood group antigen as a receptor to invade human erythrocytes and region II of the parasite ligands for binding to this erythrocyte receptor. Here, we identify the peptide within the Duffy blood group antigen of human and rhesus erythrocytes to which the P. vivax and P.(More)
The human fibroblast interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor is a glycosylated transmembrane protein with a cytoplasmic domain of 213 amino acids. We have constructed a series of deletion mutants of the cytoplasmic region of the IL 1 receptor and have used these mutants to examine its role in ligand binding, internalization, signal transduction, and nuclear(More)
The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC), first identified on erythrocytes, functions not only as a promiscuous chemokine receptor but also as a receptor for the malarial parasite, Plasmodium vivax. The recent finding that DARC is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells lining postcapillary venules provides a possible insight into the function(More)
A major challenge in the application of structure-based drug design methods to proteins belonging to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is the paucity of structural information (1). The 19 chemokine receptors, belonging to the Class A family of GPCRs, are important drug targets not only for autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis but(More)