Richard Horuk

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Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
Chemokine receptors comprise a large family of seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors differentially expressed in diverse cell types. Biological activities have been most clearly defined in leukocytes, where chemokines coordinate development, differentiation, anatomic distribution, trafficking, and effector functions and thereby regulate(More)
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators and attractants of eosinophils and basophils. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, with homology to other chemoattractant receptors, that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a(More)
IL-8 is expressed by activated and neoplastic astrocytes and enhances the survival of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Since mRNA encoding chemokine receptors have been demonstrated in brain, the expression of chemokine receptors by specific cell types in anatomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated. Archival tissues from various(More)
BACKGROUND Chemokines are a family of proteins that chemoattract and activate immune cells by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of their targets. We have shown previously that chemokine receptors including the interleukin-8 receptor B (CXCR2) and the Duffy blood group antigen are expressed on subsets of neurons in various regions of the(More)
CXCR4, a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor for the Cys-X-Cys class of chemokines, is one of several chemokine receptors that can act as a co-receptor with CD4 for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) glycoprotein gp120 [1-3]. CXCR4 can mediate the entry of HIV-1 strains that specifically infect T cells, such as the IIB strain (see(More)
Sixteen years ago, the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Pharmacology approved a system for naming human seven-transmembrane (7TM) G protein-coupled chemokine receptors, the large family of leukocyte chemoattractant receptors that regulates immune system development and function, in large part by mediating leukocyte trafficking. This was(More)
  • R Horuk
  • Cytokine & growth factor reviews
  • 2001
Although chemokines were originally defined as host defense proteins it is now clear that their repertoire of functions extend well beyond this role. For example chemokines such as MGSA have growth regulatory properties while members of the CXC chemokine family can be mediators or inhibitors of angiogenesis and may be important targets for oncology. Recent(More)
Chemokine receptors have a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, inflammation and viral infection. However, with the exception of selective CCR5 antagonists for HIV, the promise of obtaining new therapeutics related to chemokine receptors has not yet been realized. This article highlights some of the recent failures in the clinical trials of(More)