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BACKGROUND Chemokines are a family of proteins that chemoattract and activate immune cells by interacting with specific receptors on the surface of their targets. We have shown previously that chemokine receptors including the interleukin-8 receptor B (CXCR2) and the Duffy blood group antigen are expressed on subsets of neurons in various regions of the(More)
A decade ago several new cytokines were described that orchestrated the activation and migration of immune cells. These newly described cytokines, of which interleukin-8 (IL-8) was a representative member, defined a novel group of molecules called chemokines (chemotactic cytokines). Chemokines are low molecular weight, 8-12 kDa, basic proteins that have(More)
CXCR4, a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor for the Cys-X-Cys class of chemokines, is one of several chemokine receptors that can act as a co-receptor with CD4 for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) glycoprotein gp120 [1-3]. CXCR4 can mediate the entry of HIV-1 strains that specifically infect T cells, such as the IIB strain (see(More)
IL-8 is expressed by activated and neoplastic astrocytes and enhances the survival of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Since mRNA encoding chemokine receptors have been demonstrated in brain, the expression of chemokine receptors by specific cell types in anatomic regions of the central nervous system (CNS) was investigated. Archival tissues from various(More)
Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
The immunoregulatory proteins C-C chemokines are potent chemoattractants of lymphocytes and monocytes, as well as activators and attractants of eosinophils and basophils. We have isolated a cDNA that encodes a seven transmembrane-spanning receptor, with homology to other chemoattractant receptors, that encodes a protein designated C-C CKR-1 that acts as a(More)
Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the major causes of human malaria, except in sub-Saharan Africa where people lack the Duffy blood group antigen, the erythrocyte receptor for P. vivax. Duffy negative human erythrocytes are resistant to invasion by P. vivax and the related monkey malaria, P. knowlesi. Several lines of evidence in the present study(More)
Plasmodium vivax and the related simian malarial parasite P. knowlesi use the Duffy blood group antigen as a receptor to invade human erythrocytes and region II of the parasite ligands for binding to this erythrocyte receptor. Here, we identify the peptide within the Duffy blood group antigen of human and rhesus erythrocytes to which the P. vivax and P.(More)
The chemokine receptor CCR5 is predominantly expressed on monocytes and Th1-polarized T cells, and plays an important role in T cell and monocyte recruitment in inflammatory diseases. To investigate the functional role of CCR5 in renal inflammation, we induced a T cell-dependent model of glomerulonephritis (nephrotoxic serum nephritis) in CCR5(-/-) mice.(More)
Chemokines and their receptors control the emigration of leukocytes during inflammation. The role of the RANTES (regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted) receptors CCR1 and CCR5 in the selective recruitment of monocytes, T(H)1-like T-cell clones, and peripheral T cells enriched for CD45RO(+) "memory" cells were tested in a system in(More)