Richard Hayes

Learn More
OBJECTIVE To determine if inadequate approaches to randomized controlled trial design and execution are associated with evidence of bias in estimating treatment effects. DESIGN An observational study in which we assessed the methodological quality of 250 controlled trials from 33 meta-analyses and then analyzed, using multiple logistic regression models,(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the sex-specific effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) on the acquisition of HIV infection. BACKGROUND The increased number of longitudinal studies available since the last meta-analysis was published allows for the calculation of age- and sexual behaviour-adjusted relative risks (RR) separately for men and women. DESIGN(More)
We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies of the risk of HIV-1 transmission per heterosexual contact. 43 publications comprising 25 different study populations were identified. Pooled female-to-male (0.04% per act [95% CI 0.01-0.14]) and male-to-female (0.08% per act [95% CI 0.06-0.11]) transmission estimates in high-income(More)
BACKGROUND Cluster-randomized trials, in which health interventions are allocated randomly to intact clusters or communities rather than to individual subjects, are increasingly being used to evaluate disease control strategies both in industrialized and in developing countries. Sample size computations for such trials need to take into account(More)
OBJECTIVES Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies of male circumcision and the risk of HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa, and to summarize the findings in a meta-analysis. DESIGN A meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS A systematic literature review was carried out of studies published up to April 1999 that included circumcision as a risk(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether commercial sex transactions were more common and/or transmission between sex workers and clients more efficient in two African cities with high HIV prevalence (Kisumu, Kenya and Ndola, Zambia) compared with two with relatively low HIV prevalence (Cotonou, Benin and Yaoundé, Cameroon). METHODS Data on sexual behaviour, HIV and(More)
OBJECTIVE The impact of a multicomponent intervention programme on the sexual health of adolescents was assessed in rural Tanzania. DESIGN A community-randomized trial. METHODS Twenty communities were randomly allocated to receive either a specially designed programme of interventions (intervention group) or standard activities (comparison group). The(More)
INTRODUCTION Improving access to HIV testing is a key priority in scaling up HIV treatment and prevention services. Home-based voluntary counselling and testing (HBT) as an approach to delivering wide-scale HIV testing is explored here. METHODS AND FINDINGS We conducted a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of studies published between 1(More)
In non-endemic areas, the diagnosis of clinical malaria may be made on the basis of fever and a positive blood film. However, in areas of high endemicity, asymptomatic parasitaemia is very common: to assume that a child who presents with fever and parasitaemia is ill from malaria will result in overdiagnosis. In this article, Jo Schellenberg, Tom Smith,(More)