Richard Hartshorne

Learn More
A procedure is described for purification of the sodium channel 1380-fold from rat brain to essential homogeneity. The channel is solubilized in Triton X-100 and stabilized by addition of phosphatidylcholine and 10 mM CaCl2. It is purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex, hydroxylapatite, and wheat germ agglutinin/Sepharose followed by(More)
The saxitoxin receptor of the sodium channel purified from rat bran contains three types of subunits: alpha with Mr approximately 270,000, beta 1 with Mr approximately 39,000, and beta 2 with Mr approximately 37,000. These are the only polypeptides which quantitatively co-migrate with the purified saxitoxin receptor during velocity sedimentation through(More)
Single channel currents of sodium channels purified from rat brain and reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers were recorded. The kinetics of channel gating were investigated in the presence of batrachotoxin to eliminate inactivation and an analysis was conducted on membranes with a single active channel at any given time. Channel opening is favored by(More)
[3H]Saxitoxin binds to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain synaptosomes and in broken membrane fractions derived from rat brain with a KD of approximately 2 11~ at 36°C. Batrachotoxin and scorpion toxin, which act at different receptor sites to activate sodium channels, have no effect on saxitoxin binding. Osmotic lysis and depolarization also(More)
The ion conduction and voltage dependence of sodium channels purified from rat brain were investigated in planar lipid bilayers in the presence of batrachotoxin. Single channel currents are clearly resolved. Channel opening is voltage dependent and favored by depolarization. The voltage at which the channel is open 50% of the time is -91 +/- 17 mV (SD, n =(More)
A voltage-sensitive K+ channel previously cloned from rat heart designated RK5 (rat Kv4.2) (Roberds and Tamkun, 1991, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 1798-1802) was functionally characterized in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. RK5 is a homolog of the Drosophila Shal K+ channel, activates with a rise time of 2.8 ms, has a midpoint for activation of -1(More)
While researchers have studied the use and value of educational software for many years, study of school Web sites and/or their effectiveness is limited. In this investigation, we identified goals and functions of school Web sites and used the foundations of effective Web site design to develop an evaluation checklist. We then applied these criteria to a(More)
The saxitoxin (STX) receptor has been purified 740-fold from rat brain by a combination of ion exchange chromatography, wheat germ agglutinin chromatography, and sedimentation on sucrose gradients to a specific activity of 1488 pmol/mg of protein. The best fractions were estimated to be 47% pure from their specific activity or 66% pure on the basis of(More)