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Spinal cord fMRI is a useful tool for studying spinal mechanisms of pain, hence for analgesic drug development. Its technical feasibility in both humans and rats has been demonstrated. This study investigates the reproducibility, robustness, and spatial accuracy of fMRI of lumbar spinal cord activation due to transcutaneous noxious and non-noxious(More)
[(18)F]MK-9470 is a selective, high-affinity, inverse agonist (human IC(50), 0.7 nM) for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) that has been developed for use in human brain imaging. Autoradiographic studies in rhesus monkey brain showed that [(18)F]MK-9470 binding is aligned with the reported distribution of CB1 receptors with high specific binding in the(More)
The localization of substance P in brain regions that coordinate stress responses and receive convergent monoaminergic innervation suggested that substance P antagonists might have psychotherapeutic properties. Like clinically used antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, substance P antagonists suppressed isolation-induced vocalizations in guinea pigs. In a(More)
The ability of tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonists to inhibit GR73632 (D-Ala-[L-Pro9,Me-Leu8]substance P-(7-11))-induced foot tapping in gerbils was employed as an indirect measure of brain penetration and this was compared with their ability to prevent acute emesis induced by cisplatin in ferrets. (+)-GR203040 ((2S,3S and(More)
Drug development today needs to balance agility, speed and risk in defining the probability of success for molecules, mechanisms and therapeutic concepts. New techniques in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) promise to be part of a sequence that could transform drug development for disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) by examining brain(More)
Substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of emesis and depression. Autoradiographic studies in monkey and human brains have shown a high expression of NK1 receptors in regions important for the regulation of affective behaviors and the neurochemical response to stress. Furthermore, clinical studies(More)
BACKGROUND Aprepitant is a highly selective substance P (neurokinin 1 [NK(1)] receptor) antagonist that significantly improves the pharmacotherapy of acute and delayed highly emetogenic chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, probably through an action in the brain stem region of the central nervous system. Here, we report the use of positron emission(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine biochemical differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula during the interictal phase of migraine patients. We hypothesized that there may be differences in levels of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters and/or their derivatives in migraine group based on their increased sensitivity to pain. METHODS 2D J-resolved(More)
Previous work has suggested that activation of mGlu5 receptor augments NMDA receptor function and thereby may constitute a rational approach addressing glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia and a target for novel antipsychotic drug development. Here, we report the in vitro activity, in vivo efficacy and safety profile of 5PAM523(More)
The studies examined the effects of three antagonists (CPP, CGS 19755, and CGP 37849) that act competitively at the glutamate recognition site of the NMDA receptor complex on cortical neuronal morphology and cerebral limbic glucose metabolism. Responses were compared to the effects of dizocilpine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor ion channel antagonist as a(More)