Richard Hargreaves

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The localization of substance P in brain regions that coordinate stress responses and receive convergent monoaminergic innervation suggested that substance P antagonists might have psychotherapeutic properties. Like clinically used antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, substance P antagonists suppressed isolation-induced vocalizations in guinea pigs. In a(More)
Biomarkers enable the characterization of patient populations and quantitation of the extent to which new drugs reach intended targets, alter proposed pathophysiological mechanisms and achieve clinical outcomes. In genomics, the biomarker challenge is to identify unique molecular signatures in complex biological mixtures that can be unambiguously correlated(More)
Drug development today needs to balance agility, speed and risk in defining the probability of success for molecules, mechanisms and therapeutic concepts. New techniques in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) promise to be part of a sequence that could transform drug development for disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) by examining brain(More)
This study describes a novel intravital microscope technique for direct measurement of dural blood vessel diameter through a closed cranial window in anaesthetized rats. This technique avoids removal of the skull, which can lead to problems of altered vessel reactivity and brain swelling that are encountered with open cranial window techniques. Substance P(More)
This study used intravital microscopy to measure the diameter of dural arteries in anaesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the surface of a closed cranial window produced increases in dural vessel diameter which were blocked by the CGRP receptor antagonist human-alpha CGRP(8-37) but unaffected by the NK1 receptor antagonist RP67580. Sumatriptan (3 and(More)
Advances in antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced emesis have resulted in improved protection against symptoms occurring within 24 h of chemotherapy. However, the vomiting which tends to occur beyond 24 h after chemotherapy (delayed-phase vomiting) is still relatively poorly controlled by the currently available drugs, suggesting that more than one(More)
Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) inverse agonists are emerging as a potential obesity therapy. However, the physiological mechanisms by which these agents modulate human energy balance are incompletely elucidated. Here, we describe a comprehensive clinical research study of taranabant, a structurally novel acyclic CB1R inverse agonist. Positron emission(More)
Spinal cord fMRI is a useful tool for studying spinal mechanisms of pain, hence for analgesic drug development. Its technical feasibility in both humans and rats has been demonstrated. This study investigates the reproducibility, robustness, and spatial accuracy of fMRI of lumbar spinal cord activation due to transcutaneous noxious and non-noxious(More)
BACKGROUND An early clinical trial suggested that the substance P (neurokinin(1) receptor) antagonist, aprepitant, might provide a unique mechanism of antidepressant activity. Phase III trials were conducted to confirm these findings. METHODS Five 8-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials in outpatients with(More)
Substance P (SP)-neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor pathways have been implicated in the pathophysiology of emesis and depression. Autoradiographic studies in monkey and human brains have shown a high expression of NK1 receptors in regions important for the regulation of affective behaviors and the neurochemical response to stress. Furthermore, clinical studies(More)