Richard H. W. Funk

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In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the associated pathology follows a characteristic pattern involving inter alia the enteric nervous system (ENS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord and the substantia nigra, providing the basis for the neuropathological staging of the disease. Here we(More)
The adrenal cortex is a major stress organ in mammals that reacts rapidly to a multitude of external and internal stressors. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is the main stimulator of the adrenal cortex, activating corticosteroid synthesis and secretion. We evaluated the mechanism of action of ACTH on adrenals of male rats, preserving the architecture of the(More)
An overview of the functional anatomy of the retinal microcirculatory system and its regulation mechanisms is presented. The retinal microvasculature is characterized by thin capillaries which leave large vessel-free spaces compared to other microvascular beds. Despite high blood flow velocities, the blood flow volume within the capillaries is relatively(More)
BACKGROUND Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) may offer a very specific and effective way of intercellular communication. Here we investigated TNTs in the human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Morphology of TNTs was examined by immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the function of TNTs between cells, we studied the(More)
Pathological studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggest that PD pathology progresses from the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the olfactory bulb into the central nervous system. We have previously shown that environmental toxins acting locally on the ENS mimic this PD-like pathology progression pattern in mice. Here, we show for the first time(More)
Recently, we have developed collagen crosslinking induced by combined riboflavin/UVA treatment, thus increasing the biomechanical rigidity of the cornea to treat progressive keratoconus. The present safety study was performed to evaluate possible cytotoxic effects of combined riboflavin/UVA treatment on the corneal endothelium in vitro. Endothelial cell(More)
 Until now, many extracellular matrix proteins, e.g. osteopontin and osteonectin, have been used to determine a cell’s osteogenic maturation. The disadvantage in evaluation of these proteins is their relative wide-ranging appearance throughout the osteogenic differentiation process. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish an immunohistochemical setup(More)
PURPOSE To describe the arterial blood supply, capillary bed, and venous drainage of the rat optic nerve head. METHODS Ocular microvascular castings from 6 Wistar rats were prepared by injection of epoxy resin through the common carotid arteries. After polymerization, tissues were digested with 6 M KOH, and the castings washed, dried, and coated for(More)
A novel hand-held low-frequency magnetic stimulator (MagCell-SR) was tested for its ability to stimulate microcirculation in fingers of healthy volunteers. Blood flow during and after 5 minutes exposure was quantified using Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging Technique. The device was positioned between the wrist and the dorsal part of the backhand. Because the(More)
Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and lung epithelial cell apoptosis is considered to be a key event during fibrogenesis. Studies from various laboratories have indicated that metabolic conditions may initiate oxidative stress, thereby contributing to epithelial cell death. This study was(More)