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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a well-described entity in end-stage kidney disease and renal transplant patients; however, little systematic information is available on calciphylaxis from nonuremic causes. This systematic review was designed to characterize etiologies, clinical features, laboratory(More)
Treatment options for hyperkalemia have not changed much since the introduction of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Covis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), over 50 years ago. Although clinicians of that era did not have ready access to hemodialysis or loop diuretics, the other tools that we use today-calcium, insulin, and(More)
Hyponatremia is a serious, but often overlooked, electrolyte imbalance that has been independently associated with a wide range of deleterious changes involving many different body systems. Untreated acute hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of osmotically induced cerebral edema, and excessively rapid correction of chronic(More)
Virtually all investigators now agree that self-induced water intoxication, symptomatic hospital-acquired hyponatremia, and hyponatremia associated with intracranial pathology are true emergencies that demand prompt and definitive intervention with hypertonic saline. A 4- to 6-mmol/L increase in serum sodium concentration is adequate in the most seriously(More)
The defense of brain volume during hyponatremia cannot be explained by the losses of brain sodium and potassium. We have examined the brain losses of organic osmolytes in rats after 24 h of severe hyponatremia induced by the administration of vasopressin and 5% dextrose in water. Normonatremic controls and animals with intermediate plasma sodium(More)
In response to hyponatremia, brain cells extrude electrolytes and organic osmolytes, thereby minimizing brain edema. We demonstrate that rat brain is depleted of the antioxidant glutathione in response to hyponatremia and that osmotically-induced loss of glutathione makes neuronal cells more susceptible to oxidative injury. Total glutathione content of(More)
Although hyponatremia is a common, usually mild, and relatively asymptomatic disorder of electrolytes, acute severe hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with concomitant disease. In addition, overly rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia can cause severe neurologic deficits and death, and optimal treatment(More)
The treatment of hyponatremia is controversial: some authorities have cautioned that rapid correction causes central pontine myelinolysis, and others warn that severe hyponatremia has a high mortality rate unless it is corrected rapidly. Eight patients treated over a five-year period at our two institutions had a neurologic syndrome with clinical or(More)
Hyponatremia exerts most of its clinical effects on the brain. An acute onset (usually in <24 hours) of hyponatremia causes severe, and sometimes fatal, cerebral edema. Given time, the brain adapts to hyponatremia, permitting survival despite extraordinarily low serum sodium concentrations. Adaptation to severe hyponatremia is critically dependent on the(More)