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The treatment of hyponatremia is controversial: some authorities have cautioned that rapid correction causes central pontine myelinolysis, and others warn that severe hyponatremia has a high mortality rate unless it is corrected rapidly. Eight patients treated over a five-year period at our two institutions had a neurologic syndrome with clinical or(More)
Hyponatremia is a serious, but often overlooked, electrolyte imbalance that has been independently associated with a wide range of deleterious changes involving many different body systems. Untreated acute hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of osmotically induced cerebral edema, and excessively rapid correction of chronic(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a well-described entity in end-stage kidney disease and renal transplant patients; however, little systematic information is available on calciphylaxis from nonuremic causes. This systematic review was designed to characterize etiologies, clinical features, laboratory(More)
Although hyponatremia is a common, usually mild, and relatively asymptomatic disorder of electrolytes, acute severe hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with concomitant disease. In addition, overly rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia can cause severe neurologic deficits and death, and optimal treatment(More)
The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective(More)
Severe, symptomatic hyponatremia is often treated urgently to increase the serum sodium to 120 to 130 mmol/L. Recently, this approach has been challenged by evidence linking "rapid correction" (> 12 mmol/L per day) to demyelinating brain lesions. However, the relative risks of persistent, severe hyponatremia and iatrogenic injury have not been well(More)
A serum sodium concentration of 110 mmol/L or less is thought to be extremely dangerous; mortality rates of 33% to 86% have been cited. Experience at the University of Rochester School of Medicine does not corroborate this widespread belief. Among 62 patients with 64 episodes of severe hyponatremia, the mortality rate was only 8%, and most deaths were(More)
Treatment options for hyperkalemia have not changed much since the introduction of the cation exchange resin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate, Covis Pharmaceuticals, Cary, NC), over 50 years ago. Although clinicians of that era did not have ready access to hemodialysis or loop diuretics, the other tools that we use today-calcium, insulin, and(More)
Virtually all investigators now agree that self-induced water intoxication, symptomatic hospital-acquired hyponatremia, and hyponatremia associated with intracranial pathology are true emergencies that demand prompt and definitive intervention with hypertonic saline. A 4- to 6-mmol/L increase in serum sodium concentration is adequate in the most seriously(More)
When chronic hyponatremia is rapidly corrected, reaccumulation of brain organic osmolytes is delayed and brain cell shrinkage occurs, leading to the osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). We hypothesized that treatment with myoinositol, a major organic osmolyte, could prevent ODS. Severe hyponatremia was induced in adult male rats by administration of(More)