Richard H. Sterns

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Hyponatremia is a serious, but often overlooked, electrolyte imbalance that has been independently associated with a wide range of deleterious changes involving many different body systems. Untreated acute hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of osmotically induced cerebral edema, and excessively rapid correction of chronic(More)
The treatment of hyponatremia is controversial: some authorities have cautioned that rapid correction causes central pontine myelinolysis, and others warn that severe hyponatremia has a high mortality rate unless it is corrected rapidly. Eight patients treated over a five-year period at our two institutions had a neurologic syndrome with clinical or(More)
Although hyponatremia is a common, usually mild, and relatively asymptomatic disorder of electrolytes, acute severe hyponatremia can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with concomitant disease. In addition, overly rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia can cause severe neurologic deficits and death, and optimal treatment(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Calciphylaxis, or calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a well-described entity in end-stage kidney disease and renal transplant patients; however, little systematic information is available on calciphylaxis from nonuremic causes. This systematic review was designed to characterize etiologies, clinical features, laboratory(More)
A serum sodium concentration of 110 mmol/L or less is thought to be extremely dangerous; mortality rates of 33% to 86% have been cited. Experience at the University of Rochester School of Medicine does not corroborate this widespread belief. Among 62 patients with 64 episodes of severe hyponatremia, the mortality rate was only 8%, and most deaths were(More)
The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Data regarding dosage-response relationships for using hypertonic saline in treatment of hyponatremia are extremely limited. Objectives of this study were to assess adherence to previously published guidelines (limiting correction to <12 mEq/L per d and <18 mEq/L per 48 h) in treating hyponatremia with hypertonic saline and to(More)
The defense of brain volume during hyponatremia cannot be explained by the losses of brain sodium and potassium. We have examined the brain losses of organic osmolytes in rats after 24 h of severe hyponatremia induced by the administration of vasopressin and 5% dextrose in water. Normonatremic controls and animals with intermediate plasma sodium(More)
Human cells dwell in salt water. Their well-being depends on the ability of the body to regulate the salinity of extracellular fluids. By controlling water intake and excretion, the osmoregulatory system normally prevents the plasma sodium concentration from straying outside its normal range (135 to 142 mmol per liter). Failure of the system to regulate(More)
In response to hyponatremia, brain cells extrude electrolytes and organic osmolytes, thereby minimizing brain edema. We demonstrate that rat brain is depleted of the antioxidant glutathione in response to hyponatremia and that osmotically-induced loss of glutathione makes neuronal cells more susceptible to oxidative injury. Total glutathione content of(More)