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The value of any kind of data is greatly enhanced when it exists in a form that allows it to be integrated with other data. One approach to integration is through the annotation of multiple bodies of data using common controlled vocabularies or 'ontologies'. Unfortunately, the very success of this approach has led to a proliferation of ontologies, which(More)
Many existing biomedical vocabulary standards rest on incomplete, inconsistent or confused accounts of basic terms pertaining to diseases, diagnoses, and clinical phenotypes. Here we outline what we believe to be a logically and biologically coherent framework for the representation of such entities and of the relations between them. We defend a view of(More)
Traditional methods for flow cytometry (FCM) data processing rely on subjective manual gating. Recently, several groups have developed computational methods for identifying cell populations in multidimensional FCM data. The Flow Cytometry: Critical Assessment of Population Identification Methods (FlowCAP) challenges were established to compare the(More)
The mutation rate of Escherichia coli increases approximately 100-fold after treatment with replication-inhibiting agents such as UV light. This enhanced mutation rate requires the action of the UmuD and UmuC proteins, which are induced as part of the SOS response to DNA damage. To initiate a biochemical characterization of the role of these proteins, we(More)
BACKGROUND Advances in multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) now allow for the independent detection of larger numbers of fluorochromes on individual cells, generating data with increasingly higher dimensionality. The increased complexity of these data has made it difficult to identify cell populations from high-dimensional FCM data using traditional manual(More)
MOTIVATION Affymetrix GeneChip arrays require summarization in order to combine the probe-level intensities into one value representing the expression level of a gene. However, probe intensity measurements are expected to be affected by different levels of non-specific- and cross-hybridization to non-specific transcripts. Here, we present a new(More)
B lymphocyte-restricted transcription of immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) genes is specified by elements within the variable region (VH) promoter and the intronic enhancer (E mu). The gene encoding a protein that binds a VH promoter proximal site necessary for induced mu-heavy-chain transcription has been cloned. This B-cell specific protein, termed Bright(More)
Dormant tumor cells resistant to ablative cancer therapy represent a significant clinical obstacle due to later relapse. Experimentally, the murine B cell lymphoma (BCL1) is used as a model of tumor dormancy in mice vaccinated with the BCL1 Ig. Here, we used this model to explore the cellular mechanisms underlying dormancy. Our previous studies have(More)
Osteoclasts differentiate from the hemopoietic monocyte/macrophage cell lineage in bone marrow through cell-cell interactions between osteoclast progenitors and stromal/osteoblastic cells. Here we show another osteoclast differentiation pathway closely connected with B lymphocyte differentiation. Recently the TNF family molecule osteoclast differentiation(More)
The Virus Pathogen Database and Analysis Resource (ViPR, www.ViPRbrc.org) is an integrated repository of data and analysis tools for multiple virus families, supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRC) program. ViPR contains information for human pathogenic viruses belonging to the(More)