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In the present study, we sought to investigate which brain structures are recruited in planning tasks of increasing complexity. For this purpose, a parametric self-paced pseudo-randomized event-related functional MRI version of the Tower of London task was designed. We tested 22 healthy subjects, enabling assessment of imaging results at a second (random(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent positron emission tomography and single-photon emission CT studies using the Tower of London test have shown that brain activation during planning activities primarily resides in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, we adapted the Tower of London test for functional MR imaging. METHODS For use with functional MR imaging, a(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship of CSF and the serum nitric oxide metabolites nitrite and nitrate (NOx) to disease activity and progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS The study was divided into cross-sectional and follow-up. In the cross-sectional study, 20 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR), 21 with secondary(More)
The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N) is a sensitive measure of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. It consists of the Selective Reminding Test, the 10/36 Spatial Recall Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and the Word List Generation Test. We administered one of(More)
In this study, we investigated retrieval from verbal episodic memory using a self-paced event-related fMRI paradigm, similar to the designs typically used in behavioral studies of memory function. We tested the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in the actual recovery of verbal information (retrieval success) rather than in the(More)
We studied the use of functional MRI (fMRI) with visual stimulation in nine patients with unilateral optic neuritis. Eight healthy subjects served as controls. Patients showed reduced activation upon stimulation of the affected eye, on average 33% (range 0 to 156%) of the average monocular activation in the control group. Decreased activation was also seen(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate markers of axonal damage in CSF and serum of patients with different subtypes of MS in relation to measures of disease progression on MRI. METHODS In 51 patients with MS (21 relapsing-remitting, 20 secondary progressive, 10 primary progressive), levels of heavy and light neurofilaments (NfH and NfL) and antibodies to neurofilaments(More)
Disease progression in multiple sclerosis occurs within the interface of glial activation and gliosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of different glial cell responses: (i) to disease dynamics and the clinical subtypes of multiple sclerosis; (ii) to disability; and (iii) to cross-validate these findings in a post-mortem(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We applied functional MR imaging with a learning task in healthy elderly volunteers and in patients with Alzheimer's disease to study brain activation during memory performance. The purpose was to determine the feasibility of functional MR imaging during a learning task in healthy elderly volunteers and in patients with Alzheimer's(More)
OBJECTIVE Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are epilepsy-like episodes which have an emotional rather than organic origin. Although PNES have often been related to the process of dissociation, the psychopathology is still poorly understood. To elucidate underlying mechanisms, the current study applied independent component analysis (ICA) on(More)