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1 In an attempt to eliminate similar item content as an alternative explanation for the relation between depression and rumination, a secondary analysis was conducted using the data from S. Nolen-Hoeksema, J. Larson, and C. Grayson (1999). After constructing a measure of rumination unconfounded with depression content, support for a two factor model of(More)
Empirical studies have shown that decision makers do not usually treat probabilities linearly. Instead, people tend to overweight small probabilities and underweight large probabilities. One way to model such distortions in decision making under risk is through a probability weighting function. We present a nonparametric estimation procedure for assessing(More)
Social comparison theories typically imply a comparable degree of competition between commensurate rivals who are competing on a mutually important dimension. However, the present analysis reveals that the degree of competition between such rivals depends on their proximity to a meaningful standard. Studies 1 to 3 test the prediction that individuals become(More)
Probability weighting functions relate objective probabilities and their subjective weights, and play a central role in modeling choices under risk within cumulative prospect theory. While several different parametric forms have been proposed, their qualitative similarities make it challenging to discriminate among them empirically. In this paper, we use(More)
Prior research indicates that East Asians are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners. This article explored aesthetics to examine whether cultural variations were observable in art and photography. Study 1 analyzed traditional artistic styles using archival data in representative museums. Study 2 investigated how contemporary East Asians(More)
The type II transmembrane multidomain serine proteinase MT-SP1/matriptase is highly expressed in many human cancer-derived cell lines and has been implicated in extracellular matrix re-modeling, tumor growth, and metastasis. We have expressed the catalytic domain of MT-SP1 and solved the crystal structures of complexes with benzamidine at 1.3 A and bovine(More)
Decision making often takes place in social environments where other actors influence individuals' decisions. The present article examines how advice affects individual learning. Five social learning models combining advice and individual learning-four based on reinforcement learning and one on Bayesian learning-and one individual learning model are tested(More)
Intrusive thoughts about cancer, often identified as 'cancer-specific worries' or 'cancer-specific distress', have been postulated to be associated with dysfunction in women at increased risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer. The current study discusses the development and validation of a measure designed to assess women's perceptions of the(More)
When judging the similarity of two stimuli, people's ratings often differ depending on the order in which the comparison is presented (A vs. B or B vs. A). Such directional asymmetries have typically been demonstrated using complex concepts that have a large number of semantic features and a standard explanation is that different sets of features are(More)
Few studies have addressed the etiology and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) treated in an ambulatory setting. We investigated the etiology by the culture of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, urine antigen testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumoniae, and DNA or RNA determination of eight kinds of respiratory virus DNA or RNA.(More)