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Prior research indicates that East Asians are more sensitive to contextual information than Westerners. This article explored aesthetics to examine whether cultural variations were observable in art and photography. Study 1 analyzed traditional artistic styles using archival data in representative museums. Study 2 investigated how contemporary East Asians(More)
Decision making often takes place in social environments where other actors influence individuals' decisions. The present article examines how advice affects individual learning. Five social learning models combining advice and individual learning-four based on reinforcement learning and one on Bayesian learning-and one individual learning model are tested(More)
The effects of temperature on the salinity tolerance of Mozambique-Wami tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis mossambicus x O. urolepis hornorum) were investigated by transferring 35 g/l, 25 degrees C-acclimated fish to 35, 43, 51 or 60 g/l salinity at 15, 25 or 35 degrees C for 24 h, and by assaying gill tissue for branchial Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity at the three(More)
We examined the metabolic and ionoregulatory responses of the Amazonian cichlid, Astronotus ocellatus, to 20 h exposure to severe hypoxia (0.37 +/- 0.19 mg O(2)/l; 4.6% air saturation) or 8 h severe hypoxia followed by 12 h recovery in normoxic water. During 20 h exposure to hypoxia, white muscle [ATP] was maintained at normoxic levels primarily through a(More)
The scale-less carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii) inhabits Lake Qinghai located on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (elevation, 3200 m) in western China. The lake waters are alkaline (pH 9.4, titratable alkalinity=30 mmol l(-1)), Mg(2+)-rich (18.7 mmol l(-1)), Ca(2+)-poor (0.30 mmol l(-1)) and saline (9 per thousand ). These fish make annual spawning migrations into(More)
A multi-segmental mathematical model has been developed for predicting shivering and thermoregulatory responses during long-term cold exposure. The present model incorporates new knowledge on shivering thermogenesis, including the control and maximal limits of its intensity, inhibition due to a low core temperature, and prediction of endurance time. The(More)
Research from behavioral psychology and experimental economics asserts that individuals construct preferences on a case-by-case basis when called to make a decision. A common, implicit assumption in engineering design is that user preferences exist a priori. Thus, preference elicitation methods used in design decision making can lead to preference(More)
Designers often attempt to find preferences that users have for products and their attributes. Applying theory from behavioural psychology, we demonstrate that product preferences are not 'found' in people, but rather constructed by people on an as-needed basis. The demonstration explores the relationship between crux product attributes, which are both(More)
Collecting data to discriminate between models of risky choice requires careful selection of decision stimuli. Models of decision making aim to predict decisions across a wide range of possible stimuli, but practical limitations force experimenters to select only a handful of them for actual testing. Some stimuli are more diagnostic between models than(More)
We were assisted by our distinguished Evaluation Advisory Committee at every stage of our work and received invaluable feedback from our Steering Committee. We are grateful to all for their wise advice and have attempted to incorporate it in this report; but they are in no way responsible for what we have written here. INTRODUCTION This is the fourth in a(More)