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Carbon dioxide is a potent cerebral vasodilator. We have identified a significant source of low-frequency variation in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal at 3 T arising from spontaneous fluctuations in arterial carbon dioxide level in volunteers at rest. Fluctuations in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon(More)
Current clinical and experimental literature strongly supports the phenomenon of reduced pain perception whilst attention is distracted away from noxious stimuli. This study used functional MRI to elucidate the underlying neural systems and mechanisms involved. An analogue of the Stroop task, the counting Stroop, was used as a cognitive distraction task(More)
Defining language lateralization is important to minimize morbidity in patients treated surgically for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers a promising, noninvasive, alternative strategy to the Wada test. Here we have used fMRI to study healthy controls and patients with TLE in order to (i) define(More)
It is common clinical experience that anxiety about pain can exacerbate the pain sensation. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI), we compared activation responses to noxious thermal stimulation while perceived pain intensity was manipulated by changes in either physical intensity or induced anxiety. One visual signal, which(More)
Spinal cord functional imaging allows assessment of activity in primary synaptic connections made by sensory neurons relaying information about the state of the body. However, reported human data based on gradient-echo techniques have been largely inconsistent, with no clear patterns of activation emerging. One reason for this variability is the influence(More)
Simultaneous recording of event-related electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses has the potential to provide information on how the human brain reacts to an external stimulus with unique spatial and temporal resolution. However, in most studies combining the two techniques, the acquisition of functional MR(More)
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state(More)
Inter-subject differences in local cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) contribute to differences in BOLD signal reactivity and, therefore, unmodelled variance in group level fMRI analyses. A simple way of elevating blood CO(2) concentrations to characterise subject differences in vascular reactivity is through breath-holds but two(More)
Respiratory depression limits provision of safe opioid analgesia and is the main cause of death in drug addicts. Although opioids are known to inhibit brainstem respiratory activity, their effects on cortical areas that mediate respiration are less well understood. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine how brainstem and cortical(More)
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides hydraulic suspension for the brain. The general concept of bulk CSF production, circulation, and reabsorption is well established, but the mechanisms of momentary CSF volume variation corresponding to vasoreactive changes are far less understood. Nine individuals were studied in a 3T MR scanner with a protocol that(More)