Learn More
Cross-species transmission of simian foamy virus (SFV) to human beings from chimpanzees, baboons, and African green monkeys has been described. Although macaques are the non-human primate most often handled in research, human infection with SFV from macaques has not been reported. Two of 46 primate-facility workers tested positive for antibodies that(More)
Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce HIV sexual transmission by lowering genital HIV levels. A prospective study of men starting ART (n = 25) demonstrated rapid, substantial reductions in semen HIV RNA. However, despite an undetectable blood viral load, isolated semen HIV shedding was detected at more than one visit in 12 of 25 (48%)(More)
To assess dried plasma spots (DPSs) as a source of material for virus quantification, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels were quantified in matched DPS and liquid plasma samples from 73 infected patients, including 5 neonates and 4 adult patients with acute HIV-1 infection. Quantifications were performed by commercially available assays(More)
INTRODUCTION To prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in developing countries, new World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy, throughout breastfeeding for 1 year and then cessation of breastfeeding (COB). The efficacy of this approach during the first six months of(More)
BACKGROUND Field-friendly methods for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) surveillance in resource-limited regions are urgently needed. Despite evidence that dried blood spots (DBS) are suitable for HIV serology, viral load and CD4+ T-cell enumeration, no study has evaluated DBS for HIVDR genotyping. We assessed the feasibility of genotyping HIV-1 from(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals, such as transplant recipients or people living with HIV/AIDS, and congenital CMV is the leading viral cause of developmental disabilities in infants. Due to the highly species-specific nature of CMV, animal models that closely recapitulate human CMV(More)
Cynomolgus macaques have been widely used as an animal model in preclinical biomedical research and are becoming more popular among HIV/SIV vaccine researchers. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a cytomegalovirus from cynomolgus macaques (CyCMV). CyCMV was isolated from a healthy captive-bred 4-year-old cynomolgus macaque of Filipino(More)
OBJECTIVES For individuals not on antiretroviral therapy, the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV appears negligible when blood plasma (BP) viral loads are <1500 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. It is not clear whether this observation can be extrapolated to individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Because of differential tissue penetration,(More)
HIV-1, a highly diverse infectious agent, shows the greatest sequence diversity in highly exposed individuals, including greater levels of recombination. HIV-1 diversity in Nairobi, Kenya was examined in 240 individuals, including both those with high and low exposure to HIV. Sequence analysis of a 590 nucleotide proviral region encompassing vpu and part of(More)