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BACKGROUND Binocular rivalry refers to the alternating perceptual states that occur when the images seen by the two eyes are too different to be fused into a single percept. Logothetis and colleagues have challenged suggestions that this phenomenon occurs early in the visual pathway. They have shown that, in alert monkeys, neurons in the primary visual(More)
Although it has long been supposed that resistance training causes adaptive changes in the CNS, the sites and nature of these adaptations have not previously been identified. In order to determine whether the neural adaptations to resistance training occur to a greater extent at cortical or subcortical sites in the CNS, we compared the effects of resistance(More)
Becker's theory of human capital predicts that minimum wages should reduce training investments for affected workers because they prevent these workers from taking wage cuts necessary to finance training. In contrast, in noncompetitive labor markets, minimum wages tend to increase training of affected workers because they induce firms to train their(More)
Numerous everyday tasks require the nervous system to program a prehensile movement towards a target object positioned in a cluttered environment. Adult humans are extremely proficient in avoiding contact with any non-target objects (obstacles) whilst carrying out such movements. A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of considering the(More)
Studies examining dual adaptation to opposing novel environments have yielded contradictory results, with previous evidence supporting both successful dual adaptation and interference leading to poorer adaptive performance. Whether or not interference is observed during dual adaptation appears to be dependent on the method used to allow the performer of the(More)
Cross education is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb. Despite interest in this phenomenon having been sustained for more than a century, a comprehensive explanation of the mediating neural mechanisms remains elusive. With new evidence emerging that cross education may have(More)
BACKGROUND There has been an explosion of interest in methods of exogenous brain stimulation that induce changes in the excitability of human cerebral cortex. The expectation is that these methods may promote recovery of function following brain injury. To assess their effects on motor output, it is typical to assess the state of corticospinal projections(More)
An experiment was conducted to examine the contribution of sensory information to asymmetries in manual aiming. Movements were performed in four vision conditions. In the full-vision condition (FV), subjects were afforded vision of both the hand and the target throughout the course of the movement. In the ambient-illumination-off condition (AO), the room(More)
The ease with which we perform tasks such as opening the lid of a jar, in which the two hands execute quite different actions, belies the fact that there is a strong tendency for the movements of the upper limbs to be drawn systematically towards one another. Mirror movements, involuntary contractions during intended unilateral engagement of the opposite(More)
In young adults, improvements in the rate of force development as a result of resistance training are accompanied by increases in neural drive in the very initial phase of muscle activation. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if older adults also exhibit similar adaptations in response to rate of force development (RFD) training. Eight young(More)