Richard Frankham

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Inbreeding depression, accumulation and loss of deleterious mutations, loss of genetic variation in small populations, genetic adaptation to captivity and its effect on reintroduction success, and outbreeding depression are reviewed. The impact of genetic factors in endangerment and extinction has been underestimated in some recent publications. Inbreeding(More)
Fragmentation of animal and plant populations typically leads to genetic erosion and increased probability of extirpation. Although these effects can usually be reversed by re-establishing gene flow between population fragments, managers sometimes fail to do so due to fears of outbreeding depression (OD). Rapid development of OD is due primarily to adaptive(More)
There is controversy concerning the role of genetic factors in species extinctions. Many authors have asserted that species are usually driven to extinction before genetic factors have time to impact them, but few studies have seriously addressed this issue. If this assertion is true, there will be little difference in genetic diversity between threatened(More)
The ability of populations to undergo adaptive evolution depends on the presence of quantitative genetic variation for ecologically important traits. Although molecular measures are widely used as surrogates for quantitative genetic variation, there is controversy about the strength of the relationship between the two. To resolve this issue, we carried out(More)
As wild environments are often inhospitable, many species have to be captive-bred to save them from extinction. In captivity, species adapt genetically to the captive environment and these genetic adaptations are overwhelmingly deleterious when populations are returned to wild environments. I review empirical evidence on (i) the genetic basis of adaptive(More)
1 Department of Genetics, CESAR, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia 2 School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Vic, Australia 3 CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra, ACT, Australia 4 Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW, Australia 5 Centre for Evolutionary Biology, School of Animal Biology,(More)
Population viability analysis (PVA) is widely applied in conservation biology to predict extinction risks for threatened species and to compare alternative options for their management. It can also be used as a basis for listing species as endangered under World Conservation Union criteria. However, there is considerable scepticism regarding the predictive(More)