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Most studies describing animal movements have been developed in the framework of population dispersion or population dynamics, and have mainly focused on movements in open spaces. During their trips, however, animals are likely to encounter physical heterogeneities that guide their movements and, as a result, influence their spatial distribution. In this(More)
The origins of large-scale spatial patterns in biology have been an important source of theoretical speculation since the pioneering work by Turing (1952) on the chemical basis of morphogenesis. Knowing how these patterns emerge and their functional role is important to our understanding of the evolution of biocomplexity and the role played by self(More)
Germ line transformation of white- Drosophila embryos with P-element vectors containing white expression cassettes results in flies with different eye color phenotypes due to position effects at the sites of transgene insertion. These position effects can be cured by specific DNA elements, such as the Drosophila scs and scs' elements, that have insulator(More)
Matrix-attachment regions (MARs) are DNA elements that are defined by their abilities to bind to isolated nuclear matrices in vitro. The DNA sequences of different matrix-binding elements vary widely. The locations of some MARs at the ends of chromatin loops suggest that they may represent boundaries of individual chromatin domains. As such, MARs may play(More)
Extinction is an operational term that refers to the lack of expression of tissue-specific traits that is generally observed in hybrid cells formed by fusing dissimilar cell types. To define the genetic basis of this phenomenon, a series of rat hepatoma x mouse fibroblast hybrids has been isolated and characterized. We report here that the extinction of(More)
Mice homozygous for deletions around the albino locus fail to activate expression of a set of neonatal liver functions and die shortly after birth. This phenotype is thought to result from the loss of a positive transacting factor, denoted alf, in deletion homozygotes. Using differential cDNA screening, we isolated and characterized genes whose cell(More)
Tissue-specific extinguisher 1 (TSE1) is a trans-acting locus on human chromosome 17 that down-regulates expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. To study the mechanism by which TSE1 functions, we used subtractive cDNA hybridization to clone transcripts encoded within a 2-4 Mb segment of chromosome 17 that includes TSE1. High(More)
Tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene expression is liver specific and inducible by glucocorticoids and via the cAMP signaling pathway. In fibroblasts and other nonliver cells the gene is subject to negative control by the trans-dominant tissue-specific extinguisher locus Tse-1. We identified a hepatocyte-specific enhancer that is repressed by Tse-1. Two(More)
The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) controls the transcription, chromatin structure, and replication timing of the entire locus. DNA replication was found to initiate in a transcription-independent manner within a region located 50 kilobases downstream of the LCR in human, mouse, and chicken cells containing the entire human beta-globin locus.(More)