Richard Fallows

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Context. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) radio telescope is a giant digital phased array interferometer with multiple antennas distributed in Europe. It provides discrete sets of Fourier components of the sky brightness. Recovering the original brightness distribution with aperture synthesis forms an inverse problem that can be solved by various(More)
—The Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) is a dual array of omnidirectional VHF radio antennas located near Kilpisjärvi, Finland. It is operated by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory. It makes extensive use of the proven LOFAR antenna and digital signal-processing hardware, and can act as a stand-alone passive receiver, as a receiver(More)
Simultaneous observations of the slow solar wind o€ the southeast limb of the Sun were made in May 1999 using optical measurements from the C2 and C3 LASCO coronagraphs on board the SOHO spacecraft and radio-scattering measurements from the MERLIN and EISCAT facilities. The observations show the slow solar wind accelerating outwards from 4.5 solar radii(More)
Observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) allow accurate solar wind velocity measurements to be made at all heliographic latitudes and at a range of distances from the Sun. The data may be obtained with either single, double or multiple antennas, each requiring a di€erent method of analysis. IPS data taken during the 1998 whole sun month (30th(More)
The drift velocity of an auroral arc is compared with the component of F-region plasma velocity in the same direction for ten cases where the arc is seen to move steadily equatorward for several minutes without any major change in appearance or orientation. In most cases the two velocities are close, but on two occasions the drift velocity of the arc is(More)
Cosmic rays are the highest-energy particles found in nature. Measurements of the mass composition of cosmic rays with energies of 10(17)-10(18) electronvolts are essential to understanding whether they have galactic or extragalactic sources. It has also been proposed that the astrophysical neutrino signal comes from accelerators capable of producing cosmic(More)
Using observations obtained with the LOw Fequency ARray (LOFAR), the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and archival Very Large Array (VLA) data, we have traced the radio emission to large scales in the complex source 4C 35.06 located in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 407. At higher spatial resolution (∼ 4 ′′), the source was known to have(More)
We present measurements of radio emission from cosmic ray air showers that took place during thunderstorms. The intensity and polarization patterns of these air showers are radically different from those measured during fair-weather conditions. With the use of a simple two-layer model for the atmospheric electric field, these patterns can be well reproduced(More)
We present the Multifrequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS), the first northern-sky LOFAR imaging survey. In this introductory paper, we first describe in detail the motivation and design of the survey. Compared to previous radio surveys, MSSS is exceptional due to its intrinsic multi-frequency nature providing information about the spectral properties of the(More)