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This paper describes the first round of ResPubliQA, a Question Answering (QA) evaluation task over European legislation, proposed at the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) 2009. The exercise consists of extracting a relevant paragraph of text that satisfies completely the information need expressed by a natural language question. The general goals of(More)
Following the pilot Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003, a new evaluation exercise for multilingual QA systems took place in 2004. This paper reports on the novelties introduced in the new campaign and on participants' results. Almost all the cross-language combinations between nine source languages and seven target languages were exploited to set up more(More)
In rat models of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, embryonic neural cells obtained from embryos of specified ages can be implanted into the brain to partially restore both physiology and function. However, in litters produced using overnight mating protocols (often from commercial suppliers), the embryonic age can be difficult to determine precisely.(More)
Having being proposed for the fourth time, the QA at CLEF track has confirmed a still raising interest from the research community, recording a constant increase both in the number of participants and submissions. In 2006, two pilot tasks, WiQA and AVE, were proposed beside the main tasks, representing two promising experiments for the future of QA. Also in(More)
In this paper we highlight a selection of features of scientific text which distinguish it from news stories. We argue that features such as structure, selective use of past tense, voice and stylistic conventions can affect question answering in the scientific domain. We demonstrate this through qualitative observations made while working on retrieving(More)
In this paper we discuss how the Vector Space Model of Information Retrieval can be used in a new way by combining connectionist ideas about distributed representations with the concept of propositional structure (semantic case structure) derived from mainstream Natural Language Understanding research. We show how distributed representations may be used to(More)
This paper describes the Question Answering for Machine Reading (QA4MRE) Main Task at the 2013 Cross Language Evaluation Forum. In the main task, systems answered multiple-choice questions on documents concerned with four different topics. There were also two pilot tasks, Machine Reading on Biomedical Texts about Alz-heimer's disease, and Japanese Entrance(More)
This was the second year of the C@merata task [16,1] which relates natural language processing to music information retrieval. Participants each build a system which takes as input a query and a music score and produces as output one or more matching passages in the score. This year, questions were more difficult and scores were more complex. Participants(More)
This paper describes the Question Answering for Machine Reading (QA4MRE) task at the 2012 Cross Language Evaluation Forum. In the main task, systems answered multiple-choice questions on documents concerned with four different topics. There were also two pilot tasks, Processing Modality and Negation for Machine Reading, and Machine Reading on Biomedical(More)
This paper describes the second round of ResPubliQA, a Question Answering (QA) evaluation task over European legislation, a LAB of CLEF 2010. Two tasks have been proposed this year: Paragraph Selection (PS) and Answer Selection (AS). The PS task consisted of extracting a relevant paragraph of text that satisfies completely the information need expressed by(More)