Richard F. Arakaki

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OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide, a once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, with placebo and exenatide in type 2 diabetic patients. The primary objective was to determine superiority of dulaglutide 1.5 mg versus placebo in HbA1c change at 26 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 52-week, multicenter, parallel-arm study (primary(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin glargine and lispro mix 75/25 (75% insulin lispro protamine suspension and 25% insulin lispro injection [LM75/25]) represent 2 common starter insulin regimen classes: basal and premixed. After initiation of starter insulin therapy, if patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are unable to achieve a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether LY2605541 results in lower fasting blood glucose (FBG) versus insulin glargine (GL). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This 12-week, randomized, open-label, Phase 2 study enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes (hemoglobin A(1c) [A1C] ≤ 10.5%), taking metformin and/or sulfonylurea with GL or NPH insulin once daily. Patients(More)
CONTEXT Insulin resistance is an important feature of type 2 diabetes. Ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) inhibits insulin signaling, and a recent meta-analysis reported a nominal association between the Q allele in the K121Q (rs1044498) single nucleotide polymorphism in its gene ENPP1 and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE AND(More)
D ifferences in pathophysiology may affect the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diabetes in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). Equally important are differences in cultural beliefs, dietary habits, and behavioral patterns among AANHPIs that require culturally effective translation of interventions into the community.(More)
Weight-loss interventions generally improve lipid profiles and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, but effects are variable and may depend on genetic factors. We performed a genetic association analysis of data from 2,993 participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program to test the hypotheses that a genetic risk score (GRS) based on deleterious alleles at 32(More)
Insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, two factors central to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, were studied in relation to the development of diabetes in a group of participants with impaired glucose tolerance in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) at baseline and after specific interventions designed to prevent diabetes. Participants were(More)
Adult Clinical Trials Group Study 349 examined the immunology, virology, and safety of 40 mg/d prednisone as an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy in 24 HIV-infected subjects with >200 CD4+ T cells/mm in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. After 8 weeks, median lymphocyte and CD4+ cell numbers increased >40% above baseline values (p =.08). No effect was(More)
The role of insulin in cardiovascular disease is uncertain, and studies in elderly or minority populations are infrequent. Fasting and 2-hour insulin concentrations and their cross-sectional associations with cardiovascular risk factors were examined in 3562 elderly (aged 71 to 93 years) Japanese American men from the Honolulu Heart Program who were(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate prevalence of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) among a population of native Hawaiians in two rural communities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of glucose intolerance was assessed in two rural communities by history (confirmed by record review) or with a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test according to World(More)