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Dairy cows suffer from an intense energy deficit at parturition due to the onset of copious milk synthesis and depressed appetite. Despite this deficit, maternal metabolism is almost completely devoted to the support of mammary metabolism. Evidence from rodents suggests that, during periods of nutritional insufficiency, a reduction in plasma leptin serves(More)
Nonpregnant and late-pregnant ditocous ewes were fed either to maintain zero energy balance in maternal tissues (fed) or at 50% of this level (underfed) for several weeks. Whole-body kinetics of glucose metabolism were measured under basal conditions, and the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp technique was used to define insulin-dose response profiles for(More)
To explore the molecular basis for the gestational increase in glucose transport capacity of the sheep placenta in vivo, placentas from twin-pregnant ewes at days 75, 110, and 140 postcoitus (n = 6/group) were analyzed for glucose transporter (GT) concentration. Concentration (pmol/mg protein) of D-glucose-inhibitable binding sites, measured by(More)
Maternal plasma leptin is elevated during pregnancy in several species, but it is unclear to what extent this elevation reflects changes in adiposity or energy balance. Therefore, Karakul ewes (n = 8) were fed to minimize changes in maternal energy status over the pregnancy-lactation cycle. They were studied 20-40 d before breeding and during mid pregnancy(More)
To better understand the biology of leptin during prenatal life, the developmental and spatial regulation of leptin was studied in ovine fetuses. Fetal plasma leptin increased steadily between days 40 and 143 postcoitus (PC), but it was unrelated to fetal weight or placental weight at day 135 PC. Leptin gene expression was detected in fetal brain and liver(More)
This study analyzes a stochastic lead time inventory model under the assumptions that (a) replenishment orders do not cross in time and (b) the lead time distribution for a given order is independent of the number and sizes of outstanding orders. The study extends the existing literature on the finite-horizon version of the model and yields an intuitively(More)
The objective of this study was to quantify effects of maternal protein nutrition on N accretion or loss in conceptus and maternal tissues of ewes during late pregnancy. Ewes, pregnant with twins, were fed low (LP, 79 g CP/kg DM), medium (MP, 116 g CP/kg DM), or high (HP, 157 g CP/kg DM) protein diets, each with an estimated ME concentration of 2.7 Mcal/kg(More)
We immunolocalized the GLUT-3 glucose transporter isoform versus GLUT-1 in the late-gestation epitheliochorial ovine placenta, and we examined the effect of chronic maternal hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia on placental GLUT-3 concentrations. GLUT-3 was limited to the apical surface of the trophoectoderm, whereas GLUT-1 was on the basolateral and apical(More)
Studies of leptin in large domestic ruminants have been limited to measurements of gene expression because methods to measure circulating levels are not available. To develop a bovine leptin radioimmunoassay, we produced recombinant bovine leptin and used it to immunize rabbits, and to prepare bovine leptin tracer and standards. A single antiserum with(More)
Placental growth during early and mid-pregnancy has a powerful, constraining influence on fetal growth during late pregnancy. Studies involving surgical and environmental reduction of placental size in sheep have shown an associated reduction in capacity to transport oxygen, glucose and amino acids. Oxygen transport is limited by placental blood flow but(More)